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Biomateriomics is the holistic study of biological material systems. While such systems are undoubtedly complex, we frequently encounter similar components -- universal building blocks and hierarchical structure motifs -- which result in a diverse set of functionalities. Similar to the way music or language arises from a limited set of music notes and words, we exploit the relationships between form and function in a meaningful way by recognizing the similarities between Beethoven and bone, or Shakespeare and silk. Through the investigation of material properties, examining fundamental links between processes, structures, and properties at multiple scales and their interactions, materiomics explains system functionality from the level of building blocks. Biomateriomics specifically focuses the analysis of the role of materials in the context of biological processes, the transfer of biological material principles towards biomimetic and bioinspired applications, and the study of interfaces between living and non-living systems. The challenges of biological materials are vast, but the convergence of biology, mathematics and engineering as well as computational and experimental techniques have resulted in the toolset necessary to describe complex material systems, from nano to macro. Applying biomateriomics can unlock Nature’s secret to high performance materials such as spider silk, bone, and nacre, and elucidate the progression and diagnosis or the treatment of diseases. Similarly, it contributes to develop a de novo understanding of biological material processes and to the potential of exploiting novel concepts in innovation, material synthesis and design.