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The purpose of this book is to compare different solutions adopted by nine industrialized countries to common problems of income tax design. As in other legal domains, comparative study of income taxation can provide fresh perspectives from which to examine a particular national system. Increasing economic globalization also makes understanding foreign tax systems relevant to a growing set of transnational business transactions. Comparative study is, however, notoriously difficult. Full understanding of a foreign tax system may require mastery not only of a foreign language, but also of foreign business and legal cultures. It would be the work of a lifetime for a single individual to achieve that level of understanding of the nine income taxes compared in this volume. Suppose, however, that an international group of tax law professors, each expert in his own national system, were asked to describe how that system resolved specific problems of income tax design with respect to individuals, business organizations, and international transactions. Suppose further that the leaders of the group wove the resulting answers into a single continuous exposition, which was then reviewed and critiqued by a wider group of tax teachers. The resulting text would provide a convenient and comprehensive introduction to foreign approaches to income taxation for teachers, students, policy-makers and practitioners. That is the path followed by Hugh Ault and Brian Arnold and their collaborators in the development of this fascinating book. Henceforth, a reader interested in how other developed countries resolve such structural issues as the taxation of fringe benefits, the effect of unrealized appreciation at death, the classification of business entities, expatriation to avoid taxes, and so on, can turn to this volume for an initial answer. This book should greatly facilitate comparative analysis in teaching and writing about taxation in the US and elsewhere.
The international aspects of income taxation have become increasingly important as countries worldwide have become more economically integrated. International Tax Primer provides an introduction to the policies that countries seek to advance with their international tax rules, with numerous examples drawn from the practices of both developed and developing countries. It grew out of the authors' work with the OECD in conducting seminars on international tax for tax officials in countries emerging from the collapse of the Soviet Union. The book strikes a balance between the specific and the general by illustrating the fundamental principles and structure of international tax with frequent reference to actual practice in a variety of countries. Coverage includes: the role of the tax adviser; tax planning techniques; international double taxation; transfer pricing; anti-avoidance rules; tax treaties, including discussion of the OECD and UN Model Treaties; emerging issues, such as e-commerce and harmful tax competition.
Figuring Out the Tax recounts the forgotten early development of the federal income tax in the US, resulting from the interplay between Congress and the Treasury Department in the decades following the enactment of the tax in 1913. It covers a wide range of topics including the income tax treatments of marriage, capital losses, charitable contributions and homeownership, as well as the rise, demise and resurrection of income tax withholding. Lawrence Zelenak deftly illustrates how the income tax achieved its current form through a range of stories which are new to tax history scholarship and involve some remarkable personalities and surprising plot twists. Although of particular interest to tax academics and professionals, this book will also serve as a useful introduction to the development of income tax for undergraduate students and law students.
This book compares and contrasts tax systems in developed and developing countries. It addresses; the taxation of incomes, wealth and consumption at the local, national, supranational and international levels; environmental taxes; modern trends in tax admin; and tax reform.
The book is written for students of business economics and tax law. It focuses on investment and financing decisions in cross-border situations. In particular, the book deals with: Legal structures of international company taxation, International double taxation, Source-based and residence-based income taxation, International investment and profit shifting, International corporate tax planning, International tax planning and European law, Harmonization of corporate taxation in the European Union, International tax planning and tax accounting. International tax law is designed to avoid international double taxation and to combat international tax avoidance. Nevertheless, companies investing in foreign countries may suffer from international double taxation of profits. On the other hand, these companies may also be able to exploit an international tax rate differential by means of cross-border tax planning. Ulrich Schreiber holds the chair of Business Administration and Business Taxation at the University of Mannheim. He serves as co-editor of Schmalenbachs Zeitschrift für betriebswirtschaftliche Forschung (zfbf) and Schmalenbach Business Review (sbr) and is affiliated with the Centre for European Economic Research (ZEW) as a research associate. Ulrich Schreiber is a member of the Academic Advisory Board of the Federal Ministry of Finance.
A comprehensive and comparative analysis of corporate tax systems, focusing on structural defects and how they are addressed in practice.

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