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" Critical realism is a distinct school of thought in philosophy and the social sciences that has been expanding and growing in significance over the past three decades. It offers important insights into the nature of both our social and natural world, and the nature of the social sciences by challenging conventional notions of the relationship between empirical experiences, actual events, and causal mechanisms. Critical Realism and the Social Sciences brings together contributors from both sides of the Atlantic, all of whom engage with tenets of critical realism, juxtaposing them with traditional representations of social scientific enquiry. United in the belief that the conceptual systems hitherto relied upon affect our styles of thought, ethical choices, political orientations, and so on, the contributors explore realism in relation to other currents of theoretical thought, thus suggesting a basis for evaluation and further elaboration of critical realism. As a whole, the volume seeks to show how this particular approach provides a way to better understand many aspects of social existence, from human attributes to the interrelatedness of human activities and the natural world. In this much-needed study, critical realism is carefully examined, sympathetically assessed, and creatively developed by authors from diverse disciplinary backgrounds. "
Despite the important methodological critiques of the mainstream offered by heterodox economics, the dominant research method taught in heterodox programmes remains econometrics. This compelling Handbook provides a comprehensive introduction to a range of alternative research methods, invaluable for analysing the data prominent in heterodox studies. Providing a solid basis for a mixed methods approach to economic investigations, the expertly crafted contributions are split into three distinct sections: philosophical foundation and research strategy, research methods and data collection, and applications. Introductions to a host of invaluable methods such as survey, historical, ethnographic, experimental and mixed approaches, together with factor, cluster, complex and social network analytics, are complemented by descriptions of applications in practice. Practical and expansive, this Handbook is highly pertinent for students and scholars of economics, particularly those dedicated to heterodox approaches, as it provides a solid reference for mixed methods not available in mainstream economics research methods courses.
This book presents the work of a new generation of critical criminologists who explore the geographical, institutional, and political contexts of the discipline in Canada. Breaking away from mainstream criminology and law-and-order discourses, the authors offer a spectrum of theoretical approaches to criminal justice -- from governmentality to feminist criminology, from critical realism to anarchism � and they propose novel approaches to topics ranging from genocide to white-collar crime. By posing crucial questions and attempting to define what criminology should be, this book will shape debates about crime, policing, and punishment for years to come.
The Routledge Handbook of Tourism and the Environmentexplores and critically evaluates the debates and controversies inherent to tourism’s relationship with nature, especially pertinent at a time of major re-evaluation of our relationship with the environment as a consequence of the environmental problems we now face. It brings together leading specialists from range of disciplinary backgrounds and geographical regions, to provide state-of-the-art theoretical reflection and empirical research on this complex relationship and future direction. The book is divided in to five interrelated sections. Section one evaluates the philosophical basis, rationale and complexity of what is meant by the term ‘environment’ considering the major influences in the construction of how we understand our surroundings and the types of values we place upon them. Section two evaluates the types of eco-systems that are used as natural resources for tourism and the negative and positive impacts upon them. Section three evaluates relevant environmental policy and management mechanisms for the impacts of tourism on the natural environment. Section four focuses on the changing tourism-environment relationship, and the types of tourism that have become established in the tourism industry, market and policy. Section five, analyzes contemporary and future issues of the tourism-environment relationship, based upon themes of environmental and social welfare. This timely book will provide an invaluable resource for all those with an interest in tourism’s relationship with the natural environment, encouraging dialogue across disciplinary boundaries and areas of study. The book is international in its focus, emphasizing that issues of tourism and the natural environment are not only localized but transcend national boundaries that sometimes require both international and global responses. This is essential reading for student, researchers and academics of Tourism as well as those of Geography, Environmental Studies and Development Studies.
Reflections on meta-Reality is now widely regarded as a landmark in contemporary philosophy. It initiates the philosophy of meta-Reality, the third main phase of Roy Bhaskar’s philosophical thoughts, after original or basic critical realism and dialectical critical realism. Originally published in 2002 and based on talks given in India, Europe and America, Roy Bhaskar presents his new philosophy of meta-Reality as a radical extension, systematic development and proleptic completion of critical realism. This brilliant series of studies contains seminal and far-reaching discussions of critical realism and the nature of being; an incisive and limpid account of modernity, modernism and post-modernism; a sublime discourse on the nature of the self and compelling considerations on the relationship between social science and self-realization. Together, they demonstrate the ubiquity of transcendental phenomena in everyday life and the orientation of enlightenment towards collective human emancipation and universal self-realization. A new introduction to this edition by Mervyn Hartwig, founding editor of The Journal of Critical Realism and editor of A Dictionary of Critical Realism (Routledge, 2007), describes the context, significance and impact of Reflections on meta-Reality, and supplies an expert guide to its content. This book is essential reading for students and practitioners in both philosophy and the human sciences.
Capital as a Social Kind provides an introduction to social kinds in social theory. Thinking about kinds, the way we sort the things of the world into categories -- water, for example, is a natural kind – has made an important contribution to our understanding of science in the last half century, but these advances have been largely applicable to the natural, rather than the social sciences. Drawing on the rich examples offered by Marx’s analysis of capital and exploring a methodology that will be of interest to both Marxist and non-Marxist social theorists alike, Capital as a Social Kind extends this approach to the study of social life. The book argues that, provoked by his study of Aristotle, Marx’s attentions foreshadowed contemporary themes in the realist philosophy of science. Importantly, social kind analysis is relevant not only to understanding his critique of political economy but illuminates also a materialist study of law, justice, morality and the transition to socialism. Social kind analysis also opens a path for the development of today’s moral realism by suggesting the need for a systematic study of the causal structures of social life. In this respect the importance of normative themes in Marxism is defended against claims that the Marxist tradition lacks the resources to call capitalism unjust or to defend morality and human rights. The origin of capital, Marx suggests, can be found in the rupture of an original unity between the laborer and the means of labor, and the book explores the way a structure of separations best characterizes capital as a social kind. This uncovers a little developed emphasis in Marx’s work – his focus on the phenomena of separation that define our lives and also on forms of association required to transcend them. Given that capitalism has made the instruments of labor instruments of social labor, forms of association that would recover worker control over them must be democratic. The transition to socialism, the book concludes, is just winning the battle of democracy. This book will be of interest to students and researchers of economics, philosophy and indeed any social science subject.
This two volume Handbook contains chapters on the main areas to which Post-Keynesians have made sustained and important contributions. These include theories of accumulation, distribution, pricing, money and finance, international trade and capital flows, the environment, methodological issues, criticism of mainstream economics and Post-Keynesian policies. The Introduction outlines what is in the two volumes, in the process placing Post-Keynesian procedures and contributions in appropriate contexts.

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