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This book represents the first compilation of the key works in the area of critical tax theory. "Critical tax theory" is an umbrella moniker for an area of tax scholarship that examines why the tax laws are the way they are and, more particularly, the impact that the tax laws have on traditionally subordinated groups. The main purpose of this book is to make this new and growing body of work more accessible to those outside of the area.
Tax law is political. This book highlights and explains the major themes and methodologies of a group of scholars who challenge the traditional claim that tax law is neutral and unbiased. The contributors to this volume include pioneers in the field of critical tax theory, as well as key thinkers who have sustained and expanded the investigation into why the tax laws are the way they are and what impacts tax laws have on historically disempowered groups. This volume, assembled by two law professors who work in the field, is an accessible introduction to this new and growing body of scholarship. It is a resource not only for scholars and students in the fields of taxation and economics, but also for those who engage with critical race theory, feminist legal theory, queer theory, class-based analysis, and social justice generally. Tax is the one area of law that affects everyone in our society, and this book is crucial to understanding its impact.
Tax law is political. This book highlights and explains the major themes and methodologies of a group of scholars who challenge the traditional claim that tax law is neutral and unbiased. The contributors to this volume include pioneers in the field of critical tax theory, as well as key thinkers who have sustained and expanded the investigation into why the tax laws are the way they are and what impacts tax laws have on historically disempowered groups. This volume, assembled by two law professors who work in the field, is an accessible introduction to this new and growing body of scholarship. It is a resource not only for scholars and students in the fields of taxation and economics, but also for those who engage with critical race theory, feminist legal theory, queer theory, class-based analysis, and social justice generally. Tax is the one area of law that affects everyone in our society, and this book is crucial to understanding its impact.
Many things inform a country's choice of tax system, including political considerations, public opinion, bureaucratic complexities, and ideas drawn from theoretical analysis. In this book, Robin Boadway examines the role of optimal tax analysis in informing and influencing tax policy design. Scholars of public economics formulate models of optimal tax-transfer systems based on normative principles that reflect efficiency and equity considerations. They use that analysis to form views about the optimal design or reform of actual tax systems that are much more complicated than their models. Boadway argues that there is an important symbiosis between ideas drawn from normative tax analysis and tax policies actually enacted. Ideas germinated by normative analyses have led to the widespread adoption of the value-added tax, the use of refundable tax credits, and various business tax reforms. Other ideas provide rationales for existing features of tax systems, including the tax treatment of retirement savings and human capital investment. Boadway charts the evolution of optimal tax analysis and discusses the lessons it holds for tax policy. He describes the theoretical challenges posed by recent findings in such fields as behavioral economics and social choice and considers how optimal tax analysis might adapt to these new paradigms. His analysis offers a timely assessment of the role that optimal tax theory has played in establishing the principles that continue to inform tax policy.
There are many practical textbooks explaining how taxation is applied and calculated but few ever deal thoroughly with the theory behind the practice. This book concisely addresses the principles and theories behind taxation in an accessible and internationally relevant way. It encourages readers to think through and develop an understanding of why taxation is imposed, the different means by which it is imposed and the nature of the problems inherent in this imposition. It addresses background issues, fundamental principles and emerging topics such as: the philosophy and history of taxation; types of taxation; and international issues, including double taxation treaties, residence and transfer prices. This text is essential reading for students of taxation and provides a valuable introduction for students of business, finance and accounting.
Critical distance methods are extremely useful for predicting fracture and fatigue in engineering components. They also represent an important development in the theory of fracture mechanics. Despite being in use for over fifty years in some fields, there has never been a book about these methods – until now. So why now? Because the increasing use of computer-aided stress analysis (by FEA and other techniques) has made these methods extremely easy to use in practical situations. This is turn has prompted researchers to re-examine the underlying theory with renewed interest. The Theory of Critical Distances begins with a general introduction to the phenomena of mechanical failure in materials: a basic understanding of solid mechanics and materials engineering is assumed, though appropriate introductory references are provided where necessary. After a simple explanation of how to use critical distance methods, and a more detailed exposition of the methods including their history and classification, the book continues by showing examples of how critical distance approaches can be applied to predict fracture and fatigue in different classes of materials. Subsequent chapters include some more complex theoretical areas, such as multiaxial loading and contact problems, and a range of practical examples using case studies of real engineering components taken from the author’s own consultancy work. The Theory of Critical Distances will be of interest to a range of readers, from academic researchers concerned with the theoretical basis of the subject, to industrial engineers who wish to incorporate the method into modern computer-aided design and analysis. Comprehensive collection of published data, plus new data from the author's own laboratories A simple 'how-to-do-it' exposition of the method, plus examples and case studies Detailed theoretical treatment Covers all classes of materials: metals, polymers, ceramics and composites Includes fracture, fatigue, fretting, size effects and multiaxial loading
The Theory of Taxation and Public Economics presents a unified conceptual framework for analyzing taxation--the first to be systematically developed in several decades. An original treatment of the subject rather than a textbook synthesis, the book contains new analysis that generates novel results, including some that overturn long-standing conventional wisdom. This fresh approach should change thinking, research, and teaching for decades to come. Building on the work of James Mirrlees, Anthony Atkinson and Joseph Stiglitz, and subsequent researchers, and in the spirit of classics by A. C. Pigou, William Vickrey, and Richard Musgrave, this book steps back from particular lines of inquiry to consider the field as a whole, including the relationships among different fiscal instruments. Louis Kaplow puts forward a framework that makes it possible to rigorously examine both distributive and distortionary effects of particular policies despite their complex interactions with others. To do so, various reforms--ranging from commodity or estate and gift taxation to regulation and public goods provision--are combined with a distributively offsetting adjustment to the income tax. The resulting distribution-neutral reform package holds much constant while leaving in play the distinctive effects of the policy instrument under consideration. By applying this common methodology to disparate subjects, The Theory of Taxation and Public Economics produces significant cross-fertilization and yields solutions to previously intractable problems.
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