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This is an introduction to the mathematics involved in the intriguing field of cryptology, the science of writing and reading secret messages which are designed to be read only by their intended recipients. It is written at an elementary level, suitable for beginning undergraduates, with careful explanations of all the concepts used. The basic branches of mathematics required, including number theory, abstract algebra and probability, are used to show how to encipher and decipher messages, and why this works, giving a practical as well as theoretical basis to the subject. Challenging computer programming exercises are also included. The book is written in an engaging style which will appeal to all, and also includes historical background on some of the founders of the subject. It will be of interest both to students wishing to learn cryptology per se, and also to those searching for practical applications of seemingly abstract mathematics.
A cipher is a scheme for creating coded messages for the secure exchange of information. Throughout history, many different coding schemes have been devised. One of the oldest and simplest mathematical systems was used by Julius Caesar. This is where Mathematical Ciphers begins. Building on that simple system, Young moves on to more complicated schemes, ultimately ending with the RSA cipher, which is used to provide security for the Internet. This book is structured differently from most mathematics texts. It does not begin with a mathematical topic, but rather with a cipher. The mathematics is developed as it is needed; the applications motivate the mathematics. As is typical in mathematics textbooks, most chapters end with exercises. Many of these problems are similar to solved examples and are designed to assist the reader in mastering the basic material. A few of the exercises are one-of-a-kind, intended to challenge the interested reader. Implementing encryption schemes is considerably easier with the use of the computer. For all the ciphers introduced in this book, JavaScript programs are available from the Web. In addition to developing various encryption schemes, this book also introduces the reader to number theory. Here, the study of integers and their properties is placed in the exciting and modern context of cryptology. Mathematical Ciphers can be used as a textbook for an introductory course in mathematics for all majors. The only prerequisite is high school mathematics.
Topology is a branch of mathematics packed with intriguing concepts, fascinating geometrical objects, and ingenious methods for studying them. The authors have written this textbook to make the material accessible to undergraduate students without requiring extensive prerequisites in upper-level mathematics. The approach is to cultivate the intuitive ideas of continuity, convergence, and connectedness so students can quickly delve into knot theory, the topology of surfaces and three-dimensional manifolds, fixed points and elementary homotopy theory. The fundamental concepts of point-set topology appear at the end of the book when students can see how this level of abstraction provides a sound logical basis for the geometrical ideas that have come before. This organization exposes students to the exciting world of topology now(!) rather than later. Students using this textbook should have some exposure to the geometry of objects in higher-dimensional Euclidean spaces together with an appreciation of precise mathematical definitions and proofs.
Winner of an Outstanding Academic Title Award from CHOICE Magazine Most available cryptology books primarily focus on either mathematics or history. Breaking this mold, Secret History: The Story of Cryptology gives a thorough yet accessible treatment of both the mathematics and history of cryptology. Requiring minimal mathematical prerequisites, the book presents the mathematics in sufficient detail and weaves the history throughout the chapters. In addition to the fascinating historical and political sides of cryptology, the author—a former Scholar-in-Residence at the U.S. National Security Agency (NSA) Center for Cryptologic History—includes interesting instances of codes and ciphers in crime, literature, music, and art. Following a mainly chronological development of concepts, the book focuses on classical cryptology in the first part. It covers Greek and Viking cryptography, the Vigenère cipher, the one-time pad, transposition ciphers, Jefferson’s cipher wheel, the Playfair cipher, ADFGX, matrix encryption, World War II cipher systems (including a detailed examination of Enigma), and many other classical methods introduced before World War II. The second part of the book examines modern cryptology. The author looks at the work of Claude Shannon and the origin and current status of the NSA, including some of its Suite B algorithms such as elliptic curve cryptography and the Advanced Encryption Standard. He also details the controversy that surrounded the Data Encryption Standard and the early years of public key cryptography. The book not only provides the how-to of the Diffie-Hellman key exchange and RSA algorithm, but also covers many attacks on the latter. Additionally, it discusses Elgamal, digital signatures, PGP, and stream ciphers and explores future directions such as quantum cryptography and DNA computing. With numerous real-world examples and extensive references, this book skillfully balances the historical aspects of cryptology with its mathematical details. It provides readers with a sound foundation in this dynamic field.
The authors of the essays in the this volume describe a wide variety of careers for which a background in the mathematical sciences is useful. Each of the jobs presented show real people in real jobs. Their individual histories, demonstrate how the study of mathematics helped them land good paying jobs in predictable places like IBM, AT&T, and American Airlines, and in surprising places like FedEx Corporation, L.L. Bean, and Perdue Farms, Inc. You will also learn about job opportunities in the Federal Government, as well as exciting careers in the arts, sculpture, music and television. There are really no limits to what you can do if you are well prepared in mathematics.The degrees earned by the authors profiled here, range from bachelors to masters to Ph.D. in approximately equal numbers. Most of the writers use the mathematical sciences on a daily basis in their work; others rely on the general problem-solving skills acquired in mathematics as they deal with complex issues.Students should not overlook the articles in the Appendix that are reprinted from the MAA's student magazine, "Math Horizons" These articles provide valuable advice on looking for a job and on the expectations of industry.