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This book provides a systematic treatment of the mathematical underpinnings of work in data assimilation, covering both theoretical and computational approaches. Specifically the authors develop a unified mathematical framework in which a Bayesian formulation of the problem provides the bedrock for the derivation, development and analysis of algorithms; the many examples used in the text, together with the algorithms which are introduced and discussed, are all illustrated by the MATLAB software detailed in the book and made freely available online. The book is organized into nine chapters: the first contains a brief introduction to the mathematical tools around which the material is organized; the next four are concerned with discrete time dynamical systems and discrete time data; the last four are concerned with continuous time dynamical systems and continuous time data and are organized analogously to the corresponding discrete time chapters. This book is aimed at mathematical researchers interested in a systematic development of this interdisciplinary field, and at researchers from the geosciences, and a variety of other scientific fields, who use tools from data assimilation to combine data with time-dependent models. The numerous examples and illustrations make understanding of the theoretical underpinnings of data assimilation accessible. Furthermore, the examples, exercises and MATLAB software, make the book suitable for students in applied mathematics, either through a lecture course, or through self-study.
This handbook focuses on the enormous literature applying statistical methodology and modelling to environmental and ecological processes. The 21st century statistics community has become increasingly interdisciplinary, bringing a large collection of modern tools to all areas of application in environmental processes. In addition, the environmental community has substantially increased its scope of data collection including observational data, satellite-derived data, and computer model output. The resultant impact in this latter community has been substantial; no longer are simple regression and analysis of variance methods adequate. The contribution of this handbook is to assemble a state-of-the-art view of this interface. Features: An internationally regarded editorial team. A distinguished collection of contributors. A thoroughly contemporary treatment of a substantial interdisciplinary interface. Written to engage both statisticians as well as quantitative environmental researchers. 34 chapters covering methodology, ecological processes, environmental exposure, and statistical methods in climate science.
This book is thesecond volume of a three volume series recording the "Radon Special Semester 2011 on Multiscale Simulation & Analysis in Energy and the Environment" that took placein Linz, Austria, October 3-7, 2011. This volume addresses the common ground in the mathematical and computational procedures required for large-scale inverse problems and data assimilation in forefront applications. The solution of inverse problems is fundamental to a wide variety of applications such as weather forecasting, medical tomography, and oil exploration. Regularisation techniques are needed to ensure solutions of sufficient quality to be useful, and soundly theoretically based. This book addresses the common techniques required for all the applications, and is thus truly interdisciplinary. Thiscollection of surveyarticlesfocusses onthe large inverse problems commonly arising in simulation and forecasting in the earth sciences. For example, operational weather forecasting models have between 107 and 108 degrees of freedom. Even so, these degrees of freedom represent grossly space-time averaged properties of the atmosphere. Accurate forecasts require accurate initial conditions. With recent developments in satellite data, there are between 106 and 107 observations each day. However, while these also represent space-time averaged properties, the averaging implicit in the measurements is quite different from that used in the models. In atmosphere and ocean applications, there is a physically-based model available which can be used to regularise the problem. We assume that there is a set of observations with known error characteristics available over a period of time. The basic deterministic technique is to fit a model trajectory to the observations over a period of time to within the observation error. Since the model is not perfect the model trajectory has to be corrected, which defines the data assimilation problem. The stochastic view can be expressed by using an ensemble of model trajectories, and calculating corrections to both the mean value and the spread which allow the observations to be fitted by each ensemble member. In other areas of earth science, only the structure of the model formulation itself is known and the aim is to use the past observation history to determine the unknown model parameters. The book records the achievements of Workshop2 "Large-Scale Inverse Problems and Applications in the Earth Sciences". Itinvolves experts in the theory of inverse problems together with experts working on both theoretical and practical aspects of the techniques by which large inverse problems arise in the earth sciences.
This text provides a framework in which the main objectives of the field of uncertainty quantification (UQ) are defined and an overview of the range of mathematical methods by which they can be achieved. Complete with exercises throughout, the book will equip readers with both theoretical understanding and practical experience of the key mathematical and algorithmic tools underlying the treatment of uncertainty in modern applied mathematics. Students and readers alike are encouraged to apply the mathematical methods discussed in this book to their own favorite problems to understand their strengths and weaknesses, also making the text suitable for a self-study. Uncertainty quantification is a topic of increasing practical importance at the intersection of applied mathematics, statistics, computation and numerous application areas in science and engineering. This text is designed as an introduction to UQ for senior undergraduate and graduate students with a mathematical or statistical background and also for researchers from the mathematical sciences or from applications areas who are interested in the field. T. J. Sullivan was Warwick Zeeman Lecturer at the Mathematics Institute of the University of Warwick, United Kingdom, from 2012 to 2015. Since 2015, he is Junior Professor of Applied Mathematics at the Free University of Berlin, Germany, with specialism in Uncertainty and Risk Quantification.
This textbook offers an accessible introduction to the theory and numerics of approximation methods, combining classical topics of approximation with recent advances in mathematical signal processing, and adopting a constructive approach, in which the development of numerical algorithms for data analysis plays an important role. The following topics are covered: * least-squares approximation and regularization methods * interpolation by algebraic and trigonometric polynomials * basic results on best approximations * Euclidean approximation * Chebyshev approximation * asymptotic concepts: error estimates and convergence rates * signal approximation by Fourier and wavelet methods * kernel-based multivariate approximation * approximation methods in computerized tomography Providing numerous supporting examples, graphical illustrations, and carefully selected exercises, this textbook is suitable for introductory courses, seminars, and distance learning programs on approximation for undergraduate students.
Covers key ideas and concepts. Ideal introduction for graduate students in any field where Bayesian data assimilation is applied.
This book reviews popular data-assimilation methods, such as weak and strong constraint variational methods, ensemble filters and smoothers. The author shows how different methods can be derived from a common theoretical basis, as well as how they differ or are related to each other, and which properties characterize them, using several examples. Readers will appreciate the included introductory material and detailed derivations in the text, and a supplemental web site.

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