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The invention of mummification enabled the ancient Egyptians to preserve the bodies not only of humans but also of animals, so that they could live forever. Mummified animals are of four different types: food offerings, pets, sacred animals, and votive offerings. For the first time, a series of studies on the different types of animal mummies, the methods of mummification, and the animal cemeteries located at sites throughout Egypt are drawn together in a definitive volume on ancient Egyptian animal mummies. Studies of these animals provide information not only about the fauna of the country, and indirectly, its climate, but also about animal domestication, veterinary practices, human nutrition, mummification technology, and the religious practices of the ancient Egyptians. Contributors: Edda Bresciani, Aidan Dodson, Salima Ikram, Dieter Kessler, Abd el-Halim Nur el-Din, Paul Nicholson, Donald Redford, Susan Redford, Roger Lichtenberg, and Alain Zivie.
This book provides an introduction to one of the greatest civilizations of all time – ancient Egypt. Beginning with a geographical overview that explains the development of Egyptian belief systems as well as its subsequent political development, it examines methodology, the history of the discipline of Egyptology, religion, social organization, urban and rural life, and death. It also includes a section on how people of all ranks lived. Lavishly illustrated, with many unusual photographs of rarely seen sites that are seldom illustrated, this volume is suitable for use in introductory-level courses on ancient Egypt. It offers a variety of student-friendly features, including a glossary, a bibliography, and a list of sources for those who wish to further their interest in ancient Egypt.
"Today, a good century after the first X-rays of mummies, Egyptology has the benefit of all the methods and means at the disposal of forensic medicine. The 'mummy stories' we tell have changed their tone, but they have enjoyed much success, with fantastic scientific and technological results resolving the mysteries of the ancient land of the pharaohs."—from the ForewordMummies are the things that fascinate us most about ancient Egypt. But what are mummies? How did the Egyptians create them? And why? What became of the people they once were? We are learning more all the time about the cultural processes surrounding mummification and the medical characteristics of ancient Egyptian mummies. In the first part of Mummies and Death in Egypt Françoise Dunand gives an overview of the history of mummification in Egypt from the prehistoric to the Roman period. She thoroughly describes the preparations of the dead (tombs and their furnishings, funerary offerings, ornamentation of the corpse, coffins, and canopic jars), and she includes a separate chapter on the mummification of animals. She links these various practices and behaviors to the religious beliefs of classical Egypt. In the second part of this book, Roger Lichtenberg, a physician and archaeologist, offers a fascinating narrative of his forensic research on mummies, much of it conducted with a portable X-ray machine on archaeological digs. His findings have revealed new information on the ages of the mummified, their causes of death, and the illnesses and injuries they suffered. Together, Dunand and Lichtenberg provide a state-of-the-art account of the science of mummification and its social and religious context.
The Culture of Animals in Antiquity provides students and researchers with well-chosen and clearly presented ancient sources in translation, some well-known, others undoubtedly unfamiliar, but all central to a key area of study in ancient history: the part played by animals in the cultures of the ancient Mediterranean. It brings new ideas to bear on the wealth of evidence – literary, historical and archaeological – which we possess for the experiences and roles of animals in the ancient world. Offering a broad picture of ancient cultures in the Mediterranean as part of a wider ecosystem, the volume is on an ambitious scale. It covers a broad span of time, from the sacred animals of dynastic Egypt to the imagery of the lamb in early Christianity, and of region, from the fallow deer introduced and bred in Roman Britain to the Asiatic lioness and her cubs brought as a gift by the Elamites to the Great King of Persia. This sourcebook is essential for anyone wishing to understand the role of animals in the ancient world and support learning for one of the fastest growing disciplines in Classics.
English summary: Elephantine XXV concerns itself with the cemetery of rams in the temple of Khnum. The two main chapters are dedicated to the archaeological exploration of the area and provide a comprehensive overview of the examination of the cemetery, carried out between 1906 and 1911 by Charles Clermont-Ganneau (along with Jean Cledat) as part of his papyrus excavation, as well as of the follow-up explorations carried out by the Swiss Institute of Egyptian Architecture and Ancient Studies in 1954, from 1983 to 1985 and from 1991 to 2007, as part of research jointly undertaken with the German Archaeological Institute since 1968. The publication also provides a detailed account of archaeozoological investigations along with materials analysis of the items discovered. German description: Elephantine XXV beschaftigt sich mit dem Widderfriedhof des Chnumtempels. Die beiden Hauptkapitel sind der archaologischen Erforschung des Platzes gewidmet und geben einen umfassenden Uberblick uber die von Charles Clermont-Ganneau (zusammen mit Jean Cledat) im Rahmen seiner Papyrusgrabung durchgefuhrten Untersuchungen des Friedhofs (1906-1911) sowie uber die vom Schweizerischen Institut fur Agyptische Bauforschung und Altertumskunde unternommene Nachuntersuchung (1954, seit 1983-1985, 1991-2007 im Rahmen der seit 1968 gemeinsam mit dem Deutschen Archaologischen Institut durchgefuhrten Forschungen). Zudem stellt die Veroffentlichung archaozoologische Untersuchungen und Materialuntersuchungen der Funde ausfuhrlich vor. Die von Clermont-Ganneau und Cledat hinterlassenen Tagebucher und Fotos sowie einige Publikationsvorbereitungen lassen den ursprunglichen Zustand des Platzes bereits deutlich erkennen. Zusammen mit einigen Objekten bilden sie eine wichtige Quelle fur die Rekonstruktion der Baureste des Friedhofs sowie dessen Baugeschichte und deren Interpretation. Die Dokumentation der Funde sowie die in Steinsarkophagen entdeckten Widdermumien erschlieaen das Ausmaa des Friedhofsinventars. Ein Studium der Dekoration der Mumien gibt Hinweise auf den diese einschlieaenden Kult. Die in den Bauresten und im Kontext der Bestattungen aufgefundene Keramik sowie die Altersbestimmung der bestatteten Widder liefern Daten fur die bauliche Erstellung und die Nutzung des Platzes sowie dessen Belegung (Mitte 2. Jh. v. Chr.-Mitte 3. Jh. n. Chr.). Die Nutzung des Bereichs als Kleintierfriedhof (spate Kaiserzeit) und dessen Ubersiedlung (fruhchristliche Zeit) bezeugen das Ende des Widderfriedhofs.
The Oxford Handbook of Animals in Classical Thought and Life is the first comprehensive guide to animals in the ancient world, encompassing all aspects of the topic by featuring authoritative chapters on 33 topics by leading scholars in their fields. Both the realities and the more theoretical aspects of the treatment of animals in ancient times are covered in chapters which explore the domestication of animals, animal husbandry, animals as pets, Aesop'sFables, and animals in classical art and comedy, all of which closely examine the nature of human-animal interaction.

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