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In the first book-length book on the subject in over a quarter century, George C. Thomas III advances an integrated theory of double jeopardy law, a theory anchored in historical, doctrinal, and philosophical method. Despite popular belief, double jeopardy has never been a limitation on the legislature. It functions instead to keep prosecutors and judges from imposing more than one criminal judgment for the same offense. Determining when seemingly different offenses constitute the "same offense" is no easy task. Nor is it always easy to determine when a defendant has suffered more than one criminal judgment. Tracing American double jeopardy doctrine back to twelfth century English law, the book develops a jurisprudential account of double jeopardy that recognizes the central role of the legislature in creating criminal law blameworthiness.
This volume provides an up-to-date, in-depth analysis of the Double Jeopardy Clause.
An encyclopedia on American history and law, this work examines the issues of civil liberties and their relevance to major events. It also provides a historical context and a philosophical discussion of the evolution of civil liberties. It covers aspects, including the traditional civil liberties: freedom of speech, press, assembly, and petition.
This book deals with the double jeopardy rule, namely the practice of multiple characterisation of the same facts, under different headings, in international criminal law. Such practice is problematic, due to the fact that know how it works within the context of international criminal law. How does one distinguish a situation in which an act may appear simultaneously to breach several criminal provisions, whilst in reality it violates only one, from another where the act does in fact breach more than one criminal provision? International crimes such as genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes cannot be confined a single category of well-defined offences such as murder, voluntary or involuntary manslaughter, theft, etc. Instead these crimes embrace broad clusters of identical offences and share certain general legal features. Multiple characterisation of the same facts under different headings in international criminal law is therefore a complex legal problem. Every case of multiple convictions based on one act is, at its best, a plausible conjecture which however every next judgment may turn out to be a counter judgment. This book provides a combination of innovative charts, analysis, debate and solutions. From a unique perspective it examanies the history of international crimes and the jurisprudence of World War II tribunals, contemporary ad hoc international criminal tribunals, the International Criminal Court and special courts, as well as national law on international crimes.
Anti-corruption measures have firmly taken centre stage in the development agenda of international organisations as well as in developed and developing countries. One area in which corruption manifests itself is in public procurement and, as a result, States have adopted various measures to prevent and curb corruption in public procurement. One such mechanism for dealing with procurement corruption is to debar or disqualify corrupt suppliers from bidding for or otherwise obtaining government contracts. This book examines the issues and challenges raised by the debarment or disqualification of corrupt suppliers from public contracts. Implementing a disqualification mechanism in public procurement raises serious practical and conceptual difficulties, which are not always considered by legislative provisions on disqualification. Some of the problems that may arise from the use of disqualifications include determining whether a conviction for corruption ought to be a pre-requisite to disqualification, bearing in mind that corruption thrives in secret, resulting in a dearth of convictions. Another issue is determining how to balance the tension between granting adequate procedural safeguards to a supplier in disqualification proceedings and not delaying the procurement process. A further issue is determining the scope of the disqualification in the sense of determining whether it applies to firms, natural persons, subcontractors, subsidiaries or other persons related to the corrupt firm and whether disqualification will lead to the termination of existing contracts. The book compares and contrasts the legal, practical and institutional approaches to the implementation of the disqualification mechanism in the European Union, the United Kingdom, the United States, the Republic of South Africa and the World Bank.
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