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On April 12, 1945, the United States Army Air Force arrested 101 of its African American officers. They were charged with disobeying a direct order from a superior officer—a charge that could carry the death penalty upon conviction. They were accused of refusing to sign an order that would have placed them in segregated housing and recreational facilities. Their plight was virtually ignored by the press at the time, and books written about the subject did not detail the struggle these aviators underwent to win recognition of their civil rights. The central theme of Double V is the promise held out to African American military personnel that service in World War II would deliver to them a double victory—a "double V"—over tyranny abroad and racial prejudice at home. The book's authors, Lawrence P. Scott and William M. Womack Sr., chronicle for the first time, in detail, one of America's most dramatic failures to deliver on that promise. In the course of their narrative, the authors demonstrate how the Tuskegee airmen suffered as second-class citizens while risking their lives to serve their country. Among the contributions made by this work is a detailed examination of how 101 Tuskegee airmen, by refusing to live in segregated quarters, triggered one of the most significant judicial proceedings in U.S. military history. Double V uses oral accounts and heretofore unused government documents to portray this little-known struggle by one of America's most celebrated flying units. In addition to providing background material about African American aviators before World War II. the authors also demonstrate how the Tuskegee airmen's struggle foretold dilemmas faced by the civil rights movement in the second half of the 20th century. Double V is destined to become an important contribution in the rapidly growing body of civil rights literature.
Across black America during the Golden Age of Aviation, John C. Robinson was widely acclaimed as the long-awaited “black Lindbergh.” Robinson’s fame, which rivaled that of Joe Louis and Jesse Owens, came primarily from his wartime role as the commander of the Imperial Ethiopian Air Force after Italy invaded Ethiopia in 1935. As the only African American who served during the war’s entirety, the Mississippi-born Robinson garnered widespread recognition, sparking an interest in aviation for young black men and women. Known as the “Brown Condor of Ethiopia,” he provided a symbolic moral example to an entire generation of African Americans. While white America remained isolationist, Robinson fought on his own initiative against the march of fascism to protect Africa’s only independent black nation. Robinson’s wartime role in Ethiopia made him America’s foremost black aviator. Robinson made other important contributions that predated the Italo-Ethiopian War. After graduating from Tuskegee Institute, Robinson led the way in breaking racial barriers in Chicago, becoming the first black student and teacher at one of the most prestigious aeronautical schools in the United States, the Curtiss-Wright Aeronautical School. In May 1934, Robinson first planted the seed for the establishment of an aviation school at Tuskegee Institute. While Robinson’s involvement with Tuskegee was only a small part of his overall contribution to opening the door for blacks in aviation, the success of the Tuskegee Airmen—the first African American military aviators in the U.S. armed forces—is one of the most recognized achievements in twentieth-century African American history.
Die Geschichte der in Deutschland stationierten, afroamerikanischen Soldaten ist bislang wenig beachtet worden. Maria Höhn und Martin Klimke zeichnen nach, wie sich das Land im Laufe des 20. Jahrhunderts als wichtiger Bezugspunkt im afroamerikanischen Kampf um die Gleichberechtigung und zur Beendigung der Segregation in den USA herausbildete. Von den beiden Weltkriegen und der Besatzungszeit bis in die späten 1970er Jahre schildern sie die Proteste in den US-Militärbasen und Garnisonsstädten in der Bundesrepublik, den Besuch von Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. in Berlin 1964, die Allianz der Studentenbewegung mit der Black-Power- und GI-Bewegung sowie die Angela-Davis-Solidaritätskampagnen in Ost- und Westdeutschland.
• 16 original documents relating to the creation and performance of the Tuskegee Airmen during World War II, each accompanied by a brief description that provides historical context • 28 short biographies of black aviation and military pioneers, important people among the Tuskegee Airmen, as well as several of the Airmen themselves • A comprehensive bibliographic description of major secondary works on the Tuskegee Airmen, World War II, airpower, and black participation in the American military • A glossary of specialized terms pertaining to the military, aviation, World War II, and African Americans
This book is a multifaceted approach to understanding the central developments in African American history since 1939. It combines a historical overview of key personalities and movements with essays by leading scholars on specific facets of the African American experience, a chronology of events, and a guide to further study. Marian Anderson's famous 1939 concert in front of the Lincoln Memorial was a watershed moment in the struggle for racial justice. Beginning with this event, the editors chart the historical efforts of African Americans to address racism and inequality. They explore the rise of the Civil Rights and Black Power movements and the national and international contexts that shaped their ideologies and methods; consider how changes in immigration patterns have complicated the conventional "black/white" dichotomy in U.S. society; discuss the often uneasy coexistence between a growing African American middle class and a persistent and sizable underclass; and address the complexity of the contemporary African American experience. Contributors consider specific issues in African American life, including the effects of the postindustrial economy and the influence of music, military service, sports, literature, culture, business, and the politics of self-designation, e.g.,"Colored" vs. "Negro," "Black" vs. "African American". While emphasizing political and social developments, this volume also illuminates important economic, military, and cultural themes. An invaluable resource, The Columbia Guide to African American History Since 1939 provides a thorough understanding of a crucial historical period.
1943 stellt das Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory der NACA,die später zur NASA wird, erstmalig afroamerikanische Frauen ein. "Menschliche Rechner" - unter ihnen Dorothy Vaughan, die 1953 Vorgesetzte der brillanten afroamerikanischen Mathematikerin Katherine Johnson wird. Trotz Diskriminierung und Vorurteilen, treiben sie die Forschungen der NASA voran und Katherine Johnsons Berechnungen werden maßgeblich für den Erfolg der Apollo-Missionen. Dies ist ihre Geschichte. "Mit dieser unglaublich mitreißenden und vielschichtigen Erzählung zeigt Shetterly ihr Können. Die Geschichte begeistert in allen Aspekten." Booklist
Die Allgemeine Erklärung der Menschenrechte (A/RES/217, UN-Doc. 217/A-(III)), auch: Deklaration der Menschenrechte oder UN-Menschenrechtscharta oder kurz AEMR, ist das ausdrückliche Bekenntnis der Vereinten Nationen zu den allgemeinen Grundsätzen der Menschenrechte. Es wurde am 10. Dezember 1948 von der Generalversammlung der Vereinten Nationen im Palais de Chaillot in Paris genehmigt und verkündet.

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