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Ecotoxicology Modeling is a comprehensive and well-documented text providing a collection of computational methods to the ecotoxicologists primarily interested in the study of the adverse effects of chemicals, their mechanisms of action and/or their environmental fate and behavior. Avoiding mathematical jargon, the book presents numerous case studies to enable the reader to understand the interest but also the limitations of linear and nonlinear models in ecotoxicology. Written by an international team of scientists, Ecotoxicology Modeling is of primary interest to those whose research or professional activity is directly concerned with the development and application of models in ecotoxicology. It is also intended to provide the graduate and post-graduate students with a clear and accessible text covering the main types of modeling approaches used in environmental sciences.
This handbook and ready reference highlights a couple of basic aspects of recently developed new methods in modern crop protection research, authored by renowned experts from major agrochemical companies. Organized into four major parts that trace the key phases of the compound development process, the first section addresses compound design, while the second covers newly developed methods for the identification of the mode of action of agrochemical compounds. The third part describes methods used in improving the bioavailability of compounds, and the final section looks at modern methods for risk assessment. As a result, the agrochemical developer will find here a valuable toolbox of advanced methods, complete with first-hand practical advice and copious examples from current industrial practice.
Chemical substances, physical agents and built structures exhibit various types of hazard due to their inherent toxic, mutagenic, carcinogenic, reprotoxic and sensitizing character or damaging to the immune and hormone system. The first steps in managing an environment contaminated by chemical substances are characterization of hazards and quantification of their risks. Chemical models — using only analytical data — are still the most widely used applications for assessing potential adverse effects and the fate and behavior of chemicals in the environment. Chemical models rely on the assumption that the adverse effect is proportional to the concentration, which in most cases is incorrect. In this volume, other models such as biological and ecological or regression models are discussed in detail and compared. Environmental risk management has two subsections: risk assessment and risk reduction. Environmental risk, to a large extent, arises from the adverse effects of chemicals and contaminated land; that is why measuring and testing these effects plays a key role in risk management. “Environmental Toxicology” deals with direct measurement of adverse effects of pure chemicals or environmental samples. This book has therefore been created specifically for engineers and gives a general overview of environmental toxicology. It provides an overview of hundreds of standardized and nonstandardized, generic and site-specific, conventional and innovative, animal and alternative test methods, and demonstrates how to apply these results to the regulation and management of environmental risk. In addition to human, aquatic and terrestrial methods for measuring toxicity, new trends in environmental analytics and the integration and complementary use of chemical analyses and the testing of effects are described. Bioavailability and accessibility as key parameters are detailed and the interactive and dynamic characterization of contaminants in soil is introduced. Emphasis is placed on the evaluation and interpretation of environmental fate and adverse effect data as well as the simulation of environmental processes and effects in microcosms and mesocosms.
Consider the Consequences of Bringing a Chemical to Market Product Stewardship: Life Cycle Analysis and the Environment explores the regulatory and scientific aspects of the life-cycle consequences of bringing a chemical to market. Using case studies to bring critical points to life, this multidisciplinary text explores the factors that influence our risk management decisions. It bridges the academic study of life cycle analysis and the practical concerns of those in industry who produce goods for market within the web of global product stewardship regulations and under the eye of consumers concerned with sustainability. This book: Discusses the technical tools that a product steward can use to predict the life cycle consequences of chemical manufacture and use Includes the techniques needed to characterize and predict the fate and transport of chemicals in the environment Explains the formal process of life cycle assessment, which is used to evaluate the potential effects on the environment Describes the regulation of both existing and new chemicals, using examples to illustrate the complexity of the factors that affect their regulation Provides case studies that integrate the technical and regulatory foundations of product stewardship which allows readers to explore past risk-management decisions Product Stewardship: Life Cycle Analysis and the Environment describes critical product stewardship regulations and the concept of life cycle thinking in understandable and practical terms. It examines the balance between the benefits of chemical use against the possible consequences of exposure and can assist readers in learning to predict, understand, and regulate the consequences of using a chemical substance through its life cycle.
Updating the extremely successful Wildlife Toxicology and Population Modeling (CRC Press, 1994), Wildlife Toxicology: Emerging Contaminant and Biodiversity Issues brings together a distinguished group of international contributors, who provide a global assessment of a range of environmental stressors, including pesticides, environmental contaminants, and other emerging chemical threats, and their impact on wildlife populations. Addresses Emerging Wildlife Threats in One Concise Volume A decade ago, many of these threats existed but were either unrecognized or considered minor issues, and all have now snowballed into major challenges for the conservation of wildlife populations. This is the first book to address these dangers in a single volume and recommend proven mitigation techniques to protect and sustain Earth’s wildlife populations. Examines Species Range Shifts, Ocean Acidification, Coral Bleaching, & Impacts of Heightened UV Influx This comprehensive reference identifies and documents examples of chemical stressor exposures and responses among ecosystem receptors worldwide. Chapters discuss emerging diseases and the expansion of pesticide/contaminant use, as well as agricultural trends and biofuels, and the widespread use of munitions and explosives from military and industrial-related activities. With the aid of several solid case studies, the book also addresses atmospheric contaminants and climate change, population modeling, and emerging transnational issues in ecotoxicology. Wildlife Toxicology: Emerging Contaminant and Biodiversity Issues stimulates dialogue among the academic and research communities and environmental public policy decision makers. The book challenges these groups to think more globally about environmental contaminants and their potential impacts on biodiversity and environmental degradation. Check out Ronald J. Kendall's Advances in Biological and Chemical Terrorism Countermeasures. Professor Kendall has been quoted recently in several news outlets in connection with the Gulf Oil Spill. Check out these articles on the CRC Press Ning page.
Completely revised and updated, Fundamentals of Ecotoxicology, Second Edition presents a treatment of ecotoxicology ranging from molecular to global perspectives. The authors focus first on lower levels of organization and then extend their discussion to include landscape, regional, and biospheric topics, imparting a perspective as broad as the the problems facing practicing professionals. See what's new in this edition: A comprehensive chapter on the nature, transport, and fate of major classes of contaminants in terrestrial, freshwater, and marine systems Side bars containing vignettes by leaders in the field let you benefit from the experience of diverse practitioners in the field An appendix covering European environmental regulations The authors detail key contaminants of concern, explore their fate and cycling in the biosphere, and discuss bioaccumulation and the effects of contaminants at increasing levels of ecological organization. They cover regulatory aspects of the field in separate chapters that address the technical issues of risk assessment and discuss key U.S. and European legislation in the appendices. Complete with study questions, a detailed glossary, and vignettes by various experts exploring special topics in ecotoxicology, Fundamentals of Ecotoxicology, Second Edition is an ideal introductory textbook for both undergraduate- and graduate-level courses, as well as a valuable reference for professionals.
Ecotoxicology is the science that seeks to predict the impacts of chemi cals upon ecosystems. This involves describing and predicting ecological changes ensuing from a variety of human activities that involve release of xenobiotic and other chemicals to the environment. A fundamental principle of ecotoxicology is embodied in the notion of change. Ecosystems themselves are constantly changing due to natural processes, and it is a challenge to distinguish the effects of anthropogenic activities against this background of fluctuations in the natural world. With the frustratingly large, diverse, and ever-emerging sphere of envi ronmental problems that ecotoxicology must address, the approaches to individual problems also must vary. In part, as a consequence, there is no established protocol for application of the science to environmental prob lem-solving. The conceptual and methodological bases for ecotoxicology are, how ever, in their infancy, and thus still growing with new experiences. In deed, the only robust generalization for research on different ecosystems and different chemical stresses seems to be a recognition of the necessity of an ecosystem perspective as focus for assessment. This ecosystem basis for ecotoxicology was the major theme of a previous pUblication by the Ecosystems Research Center at Cornell University, a special issue of Environmental Management (Levin et al. 1984). With that effort, we also recognized an additional necessity: there should be a continued develop ment of methods and expanded recognition of issues for ecotoxicology and for the associated endeavor of environmental management.

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