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The history of American education is replete with educational reform, and to a lesser extent, educational dissent. Consider the present: you have various forms of privatization, school choice, the 'No Child Left Behind' act, home schooling, 'value-added' accountability, alternative teacher preparation programs, on-line instruction, etc. This range of activity is not exceptional. For instance, consider the past: progressive education, open education, the junior high school, the middle school, Life Adjustment education, career education, vocational education, the comprehensive high school, school-to-work, year-round schooling, behavioral objectives, proficiency exams (high-stakes testing), whole language, learning packages and self-paced instruction, modular scheduling, site-based management, all presented as the way to reform American schools, at least in part. Then you have the reformers themselves, such as John Dewey, George Counts, Herbert Kohl, John Holt, Charles Silberman, Admiral Hyman Rickover, James Bryant Conant, all the way back to Horace Mann himself. Dissenters, and dissenting movements, while not as numerous and certainly not as well known in educational circles, count the various faith-based schools and individuals such as Archbishop Hughes of New York.Clearly, this is an area rich in ideas, rife with controversy, and vital in its outcome for individuals and the nation as a whole. And yet, strangely enough, there exists no major encyclopedia bringing the varied strands together in one place as a ready reference for scholars, teachers, school administrators, and students studying to enter the educational profession. This two-volume work is intended to be that authoritative resource. Key themes and topics include: " biographies of reformers and dissenters " theoretical and ideological perspectives " key programs and legislation " judicial verdicts impacting educational change in America " the politics and processes of educational reform and policy making " dissent and resistance to reform " technology's impact on educational reform. A Reader's Guide in the front matter groups entries around such themes to help readers find related entries more easily.
Balancing Change and Tradition in Global Education Reform is an invaluable resource for policymakers, faculty, students, and anyone interested in how decisions made about the education system ultimately affect the quality of education, educational access, and social justice.
The reform of teacher education has been a focal point of state action in industrial countries since the early 1980s. Given this convergence of educational and governmental activity, the studies presented here are a significant departure from conventional discourse on reform, because they explore the ways that social regulation and political power operate through the processes of educational reform. This book considers the reform of teacher education to be an integral part of the larger system of social regulation that takes place in the arena of schooling. Reforms in teacher education involve complex sets of interactions among and within social institutions. These interactions help shape power relations and patterns of social regulation that operate through state, university, and school interactions. Nevertheless, the patterns that give direction and value to teacher education are not easily discerned in public discussions of educational change. Instead, many of the most important regulatory aspects of teacher education reform are partly obscured by a public discourse that focuses attention on formal responses to socioeconomic events, and that tends to divert critical attention away from the power that is exercised and the interests that are served during reform. This volume presents studies of reform in Australia, Finland, Iceland, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Although these countries differ in their political and social histories, rates and levels of industrialization, and patterns of educational practice, there is a striking commonality in both the strategies that are employed to reform teacher education, and in the nature of social regulation that is a concomitant of reform."
Examines the origins, context, and patterns of educational reform in the United States.
Behind the headlines and controversy surrounding new academy schools, many of their principals, teachers and pupils have been quietly changing the culture of learning and achievement in some of the most disadvantaged communities in England. While successful innovation and change is not unique to academies, this book illustrates how the academy policy represents a significant opportunity to improve the life chances of their pupils. Too much attention has focused on unanswerable questions about whether academies are better or worse than their predecessor or comparable schools in their neighbourhood. Too little focus has been on what policy-makers and practitioners can learn from the different, and often conflicting, perspectives of the key players, notably sponsors, architects, principals, parents and pupils in order to create a school that can truly serve their community with distinction. "The development of Academies is a high profile initiative which has given rise to a large number of publications. However, as the analysis in this book illustrates, many of these consist either of polemic or of attempts at evaluation with limited sophistication or success. By asking the question `what can be learned from the Academies programme?' this book provides a different perspective. The range of interviews with key informants provides concrete original data around which the discussion and analysis are skilfully woven." Mike Fleming, University of Durham, UK "Not only do the authors draw upon interviews with a wide range of practitioners working in Academies, but they also give the reader access to the thinking of leading strategists in the development of their philosophy, most notably Lord Adonis. This in its own right recommends the book as a text of critical importance. More than this, however, the authors undertake a painstaking but always riveting analysis of the successes and failures of this central strategy in New Labour educational policy." Derrick Armstrong, University of Sydney, Australia
In this personal account, Jean Anyon provides evidence that the economic and political devastation of America's inner cities has robbed schools and teachers of the capacity to successfully implement current strategies of educational reform. She argues that without fundamental change in government and business policies and the redirection of major resources back into the schools and the communities they serve, urban schools are consigned to failure, and no effort at raising standards, improving teaching, or boosting achievement can occur.
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