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Wastewater treatment technology is undergoing a profound transformation due to the fundamental changes in regulations governing the discharge and disposal of h- ardous pollutants. Established design procedures and criteria, which have served the industry well for decades, can no longer meet the ever-increasing demand. Toxicity reduction requirements dictate in the development of new technologies for the treatment of these toxic pollutants in a safe and cost-effective manner. Fo- most among these technologies are electrochemical processes. While electrochemical technologies have been known and utilized for the tre- ment of wastewater containing heavy metal cations, the application of these p- cesses is only just a beginning to be developed for the oxidation of recalcitrant organic pollutants. In fact, only recently the electrochemical oxidation process has been rec- nized as an advanced oxidation process (AOP). This is due to the development of boron-doped diamond (BDD) anodes on which the oxidation of organic pollutants is mediated via the formation of active hydroxyl radicals.
The first book of its kind, Environmental Electrochemistry considers the role that electrochemical science and engineering can play in environmental remediation, pollution targeting, and pollutant recycling. Electrochemical-based sensors and abatement technologies for the detection, quantification, and treatment of environmental pollutants are described. Each chapter includes an extensive listing of supplemental readings, with illustrations throughout the bookto clarify principles and approaches detailed in the text. The first book to review electro- and photoelectrochemical technologies for environmental remediation, pollution sensors and pollutant recycling Applicable to a broad audience of environmental scientists and practicing electrochemists Includes both laboratory concepts and practical applications
This book discusses in detail the analysis and monitoring of the most important analytes in the environmental field. It also reviews the implementation, realization and application of sensor designs mentioned in the first volume of this set, dividing the coverage into global parameters, sensors of organics and sensors of inorganics.
Environmental chemistry is a fast developing science aimed at deciphering fundamental mechanisms ruling the behaviour of pollutants in ecosystems. Applying this knowledge to current environmental issues leads to the remediation of environmental media, and to new, low energy, low emission, sustainable processes. Nanotechnology applications for alternative energies such as solar power, fuel cells, hydrogen and lithium batteries are reviewed in the first section. Recent investigations on carbon nanotubes, nanocatalysts and cyclodextrins disclose unprecedented techniques to monitor and clean pollutants such as greenhouse gases, heavy metals, pesticides, pathogens occurring in water, air and soil. The second section reviews the risks for human health of critical pollutants such as endocrine disruptors, dioxins and heavy metals contaminating seafood and sediments. An exhaustive review of DDT isomers reveals unexpected mechanisms of DDT transfer to fishes. A chapter on pollutant geochronology using river sedimentary archives provides novel insights on pollution history since the beginning of the anthropocene. This book will be a valuable source of information for engineers and students developing novel applied techniques to monitor and clean pollutants in air, wastewater, soils and sediments.
This brief is concerned with the fundamentals of corrosion of metallic materials and electrochemistry for better understanding of corrosion phenomena. Corrosion is related to both the environment and material properties, induced by electrochemical reactions at the interface between metallic materials and the environment as in aqueous and gaseous phases. In order to understand corrosion phenomena, knowledge of electrochemistry is thus required, and to investigate the cause of corrosion damage, appropriate electrochemical experiments must be performed. Corrosion scientists should therefore possess knowledge of both electrochemistry and its related experimental techniques. In this book, corrosion phenomena are introduced from the electrochemical aspect. Electrochemical techniques for the study of corrosion are then described with other techniques that can be combined with electrochemistry. Because this brief is characterized as starting with the fundamentals of corrosion and electrochemistry, it is accessible to undergraduate students as well as to graduate students who are beginning corrosion research.
For Researchers, Students, Industrial Professionals, and Manufacturers Electrochemical Reduction of Carbon Dioxide: Fundamentals and Technologies is your guide to improved catalytic performance in the electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2). Written by electrochemical energy scientists actively involved in environmental research and development, this book addresses the biggest challenge to CO2 electrochemical reduction—low performance of the electrocatalysts—and outlines practical applications for the effective use of CO2. The authors discuss the development of electrochemical energy devices and consider environmental protection on a macroscopic and microscopic scale. Presenting a systematic overview of CO2 electroreduction, they explain the fundamental principles, describe recent advances, and outline applications for future use. In addition, the authors describe: The main metal electrodes used for CO2 electroreduction Current efficiencies for CO2 reduction products on different metal electrodes The electrochemical conversion of carbon dioxide to produce important chemicals Three categories of reaction conditions: heterogeneous catalysis, low-temperatures electrolysis, and high-temperature electrolysis Developments in CO2 hydrogenation reactions Various analysis methods Progresses in the theoretical electrochemical reduction of CO2 Electrochemical Reduction of Carbon Dioxide: Fundamentals and Technologies covers a variety of topics relevant to the successful use of CO2 electrochemical reduction and utilizes expert contributors at the top of their field. The book functions as a resource for students and professionals involved in materials science, electrochemistry, chemical, energy, electrical, and mechanical engineering.
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