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The new and updated edition of this accessible text provides a comprehensive overview of the comparative physiology of animals within an environmental context. Includes two brand new chapters on Nerves and Muscles and the Endocrine System. Discusses both comparative systems physiology and environmental physiology. Analyses and integrates problems and adaptations for each kind of environment: marine, seashore and estuary, freshwater, terrestrial and parasitic. Examines mechanisms and responses beyond physiology. Applies an evolutionary perspective to the analysis of environmental adaptation. Provides modern molecular biology insights into the mechanistic basis of adaptation, and takes the level of analysis beyond the cell to the membrane, enzyme and gene. Incorporates more varied material from a wide range of animal types, with less of a focus purely on terrestrial reptiles, birds and mammals and rather more about the spectacularly successful strategies of invertebrates. A companion site for this book with artwork for downloading is available at: www.blackwellpublishing.com/willmer/
This new text provides a fresh approach to the subject of animal physiology, truly integrating comparative and environmental aspects for the first time. The book is divided into three sections: the first covers the basic principles of adaptation and problems of size and scale; the second tackles the key mechanisms in comparative physiology; and the third considers in detail how organisms (both vertebrate and invertebrate) cope with particular environments. Throughout this final section, relevant comparative aspects are given prominence in boxes so that interesting topics can be explored in greater depth. Several textbooks deal with the physiological functioning and comparative adaptations of animals, but this one is different: Includes both comparative systems physiology (basic principles and mechanisms of excretion, thermal biology, respiration, etc) and environmental physiology (problems of life in different habitats), with easy cross-reference between the two. Analyses and integrates problems and adaptations for each kind of environment: marine, seashore and estuary, freshwater, terrestrial and parasitic. For example, it explains how seashore animals survive both tidal submersion in cold salt water and exposure to warm dry air, cope with wide variations in salinity and temperature and achieve both aerial and underwater breathing. Examines mechanisms and responses beyond physiology. It analyses the costs of different types of locomotion, together with the mechanical challenges and varying sensory needs imposed by different environments. Behavioural responses to environmental challenges are considered, including the evolution of mating systems and life-history strategies, as well as responses to stresses imposed by humans. The book therefore integrates the biochemical, physiological, behavioral and ecological adaptations that allow animals to survive in particular environments. Applies an evolutionary perspective to the analysis of environmental adaptation. It introduces modern, phylogeny-based comparative methods that have become standard techniques in the analysis of evolutionary patterns. Provides modern molecular biological insights into the mechanistic basis of adaptation, and takes the level of analysis beyond the cell to the membrane, enzyme and gene. Incorporates more varied material from a wide range of animal types, with less of a focus purely on terrestrial reptiles, birds and mammals and more on the spectacularly successful strategies of invertebrates. This is a core text for modern undergraduate courses in animal physiology, comparative physiology, environmental physiology and physiological ecology. It is also suitable for the physiological components of any animal biology course, and a key resource for degree courses in environmental biology.
"The concept for this text arose from the 18th Discover Conference on Effect of the Thermal Environment on Nutrient and Management Requirements of Cattle, which was held at the Brown County Inn in Nashville, Indiana November 2-5, 2009"--Pref.
In this revised, updated, two-color edition of the acclaimed text Animal Physiology, Knut Schmidt-Nielsen introduces and develops the fundamental principles of animal physiology according to major environmental features--oxygen, food and energy, temperature, and water. The book is structured the same as the previous edition, but every chapter has been updated to take into account recent developments, with numerous new references and figures. New and expanded features include: extensive modifications to the chapter on Movement, Muscle and Biomechanics; new material on respiratory pigments; feeding and digestion in shrimp and hoatzin; plant defense compounds; diving in seals; high temperature tolerance; the patch clamp method for ion channel research; the pineal gland and melatonin. Two-color throughout for clear description and illustration of fundamental principles.
Within recent years man has become increasingly aware of the disastrous environmental changes that he has introduced, and therefore society is now more concerned about understanding the adaptations organisms have evolved in order to survive and flourish in their environment. Because much of the information pertaining to this subject is scattered in various journals or special symposia proceedings, our purpose in writing this book is to bring together in a college-and graduate-student text the principal concepts of the environmental physiology of the animals that inhabit one of the major realms of the earth, the sea. Our book is not meant to be a definitive treatise on the physiological adap tation of the animals that inhabit the marine environment. Instead, we have tried to highlight some of the physiological mechanisms through which these animals have been able to meet the challenges of their environment. We have not written this book for anyone particular scientific discipline; rather, we hope that it will have an interdisciplinary appeal. It is meant to be both a reference text and a text for teaching senior undergraduate and graduate courses in marine biology, physiological ecology of marine animals, and envi ronmental physiology of marine animals.
Environmental Aspects of Housing for Animal Production is concerned with environmental aspects of housing farm animals. The discussions are organized around physical and physiological principles; environmental influences on reproduction; environmental influences on the productivity of farm animals; optimal housing environments for temperate and cool climates; housing environments for hot climates; engineering and control of the house environment; and the constraints of welfare and disease. This text consists of 32 chapters divided into nine sections. The first chapter explores the physiological mechanisms whereby the food- or fiber-producing animals maintain a constant body temperature under climatic extremes and the possible impact that these physiological processes may have on productive systems. This discussion is followed by chapters on the influence of climate on the decision to house livestock; the effect of the environment on animal reproduction; thermal influences on poultry; and the importance of ventilation and temperature control. This text also considers the poultry housing problems in tropical and subtropical climates; insulation of animal houses; and the interaction between feathering and egg production in laying hens. This book will appeal to those working in the field of housing for animal production, both in research and development and at a practical level.

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