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SERIES PREFACE In the Essentials of Behavioral Science series, our goal is to provide readers with books that will deliver key practical information in an efficient, accessible style. The series features books on a variety of topics, such as statistics, psychological testing, and research design and methodology, to name just a few. For the experienced professional, books in the series offer a concise yet thorough review of a specific area of expertise, including numerous tips for best practices. Students can turn to series books for a clear and concise overview of the important topics in which they must become proficient to practice skillfully, efficiently, and ethically in their chosen fields. Wherever feasible, visual cues highlighting key points are utilized alongside systematic, step-by-step guidelines. Chapters are focused and succinct. Topics are organized for an easy understanding of the essential material related to a particular topic. Theory and research are continually woven into the fabric of each book, but always to enhance the practical application of the material, rather than to sidetrack or overwhelm readers. With this series, we aim to challenge and assist readers in the behavioral sciences to aspire to the highest level of competency by arming them with the tools they need for knowledgeable, informed practice. The purposes of Essentials of Research Design and Methodology are to discuss the various types of research designs that are commonly used, the basic process by which research studies are conducted, the research-related considerations of which researchers should be aware, the manner in which the results of research can be interpreted and disseminated, and the typiix TEAM LinG - Live, Informative, Non-cost and Genuine ! cal pitfalls faced by researchers when designing and conducting a research study. This book is ideal for those readers with minimal knowledge of research as well as for those readers with intermediate knowledge who need a quick refresher regarding particular aspects of research design and methodology. For those readers with an advanced knowledge of research design and methodology, this book can be used as a concise summary of basic research techniques and principles, or as an adjunct to a more advanced research methodology and design textbook. Finally, even for those readers who do not conduct research, this book will become a valuable addition to your bookcase because it will assist you in becoming a more educated consumer of research. Being able to evaluate the appropriateness of a research design or the conclusions drawn from a particular research study will become increasingly more important as research becomes more accessible to nonscientists. In that regard, this book will improve your ability to efficiently and effectively digest and understand the results of a research study. Alan S. Kaufman, PhD, and Nadeen L. Kaufman, EdD, Founding Editors Yale University School of Medicine x SERIES PREFACE TEAM LinG - Live, Informative, Non-cost and Genuine ! We would like to thank Karen Dugosh and Audrey Cleary for their helpful comments on earlier drafts of this book. We would also like to thank Susan Matties for her research assistance. Additional thanks go to Dr. Virginia Brabender for introducing us to John Wiley and Sons. Finally we’d like to thank Tracey Belmont, our editor, for her support and sense of humor. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS TEAM LinG - Live, Informative, Non-cost and Genuine !