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The European Union (E.U.), along with the Council of Europe, NATO, and the Office of Security and Cooperation in Europe are regional organizations which, despite their different missions, all are designed to support democracy, human rights, and the rule of law. The E.U. has required that all of its candidate countries for potential and actual membership adhere to these three criteria, along with free market practices, since its 1993 Copenhagen, inter-governmental summit. In this book, experts have contributed chapters on the European record of induced improvements in a variety of countries. Current scholarship has debated whether the rational incentives of accession to membership (conditionality theory); the normative power of European identity (socialization theory); or international legal processes (institutional theory) have explained what some claim are significant improvements. Other scholars demur, arguing that the improvements have been superficial or ephemeral, or conversely, that real improvement would have occurred anyway. Still others argue that real improvements are reversible, especially after E.U. membership is attained and regimes revert to former or new ways that erode democratization. The E.U. and its peer institutions, they suggest, are not heavy anchors to democracy in periods of economic distress, rising nationalism and extremism. Yet others argue that out of these challenges, the E.U. has saved the Euro, built even stronger institutions, and remains a beacon of desired ideals and membership among countries that conceivably could graduate from its partner organizations and eventually join the E.U. as well. Each chapter assesses what difference the E.U. and other regional organizations have made in the record of a particular country. These country chapters include those: that were candidate countries and became member states (Romania and Bulgaria in 2007 and Croatia in 2013); those that are now officially candidate countries (Iceland, Macedonia, and since 2014, Serbia); those have all signed stabilization agreements, which are usually precursors of E.U. candidature (Montenegro, Bosnia, Albania, and since 2014, despite being regarded as too large, the Ukraine, and too poor, Moldova); and finally, a new country (Kosovo), despite its non-recognition by five E.U. member states, which nonetheless appears to be on the road to eventual E.U. candidacy. This study is a highly nuanced picture of a varying European record fraught with conflicting interests, but portraying a picture of outer Europe struggling to improve because it seeks membership in a still powerful supranational organization.
This book examines the political and legal challenges of regional governance in the European Union and the Council of Europe. Academics and policy makers will learn from its analysis of legal and political efforts to integrate supranational and intergovernmental agencies with national political systems.
Human rights are politically fraught in Turkey, provoking suspicion and scrutiny among government workers for their anti-establishment left-wing connotations. Nevertheless, with eyes worldwide trained on Turkish politics, and with accession to the European Union underway, Turkey's human rights record remains a key indicator of its governmental legitimacy. Bureaucratic Intimacies shows how government workers encounter human rights rhetoric through training programs and articulates the perils and promises of these encounters for the subjects and objects of Turkish governance. Drawing on years of participant observation in programs for police officers, judges and prosecutors, healthcare workers, and prison personnel, Elif M. Babül argues that the accession process does not always advance human rights. In casting rights as requirements for expertise and professionalism, training programs strip human rights of their radical valences, disassociating them from their political meanings within grassroots movements. Translation of human rights into a tool of good governance leads to competing understandings of what human rights should do, not necessarily to liberal, transparent, and accountable governmental practices. And even as translation renders human rights relevant for the everyday practices of government workers, it ultimately comes at a cost to the politics of human rights in Turkey.
This book provides an analysis of key approaches to rule of law oversight in the EU and identifies deeper theoretical problems.
"Explores European foreign policy and the degree of European Union success in proposing itself as a valid international actor, drawing from the expertise of scholars and practitioners in many disciplines. Addresses issues past and present, theoretical and practice-oriented, and country- and region-specific"--Provided by publisher.
Until recently there was pervasive pessimism over whether the countries of the former Soviet Union or the Arab/Muslim states in the Mediterranean and Middle East would engage in genuine democratic reform. This landscape has begun to change, however, as some of the European CIS states resolved to clean up their phony democracies, and the Arab/Muslim world witnessed either advances in the formal institutions of democracy or signs of popular uprisings against authoritarian regimes.The contributors to this volume approach democratization of the European neighborhood from two sides, first exploring developments in the states themselves and then examining what the European Union has been doing to promote the process. While democracy always receives top billing in formal EU speeches, in practice it has had to find a more modest place in a complex set of often competing and sometimes contradictory interests.

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