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FILM TECHNIQUE AND FILM ACTING- The Cinema Writings of V. I. PUDOVKIN. Contents include: CONTENTS FILM TECHNIQUE A separate table of contents for FILM ACTING appears at the beginning of that volume. INTRODUCTION BY LEWIS JACOBS iii INTRODUCTION TO THE GERMAN EDITION . . xiii I. THE FILM SCENARIO AND ITS THEORY FOREWORD 1 PART I. THE SCENARIO .... 3 The meaning of the shooting-script The construction of the scenarioThe theme The action-treatment of the theme Conclusion. PART H. THE PLASTIC MATERIAL . . 26 The simplest specific methods of shooting-Method of treatment of the material struc tural-editing Editing of the scene Editing of the sequence Editing of the Scenario-Editing as an instrument of impression rela tional editing. II. FILM DIRECTOR AND FILM MATERIAL PART I. THE PECULIARITIES OF FILM MATERIAL 51 The film and the theatre The methods of the film Film and reality Filmic space and time The material of films Analysis Editing the logic of filmic analysis The necessity to interfere with movement Organisation of the material to be shot Arranging setups The organisation of chance material Filmic form The technique of directorial work. PART II. THE DIRECTOR AND THE SCENARIO 93 The director and the scenarist The environ ment of the film-The characters in the environment The establishment of the rhythm of the film. PABT III. THE DIRECTOR AND THE ACTOR 105 Two kinds of production The film actor and the film type Planning the acting of the film type The ensemble Expressive movement-Expressive objects The director as creator of the ensemble. PART IV. THE ACTOR IN THE FRAME . 118 The actor and the filmic image The actor and light. PART V. THE DIRECTOR AND THE CAMERA MAN 120 The cameraman and the camera The camera and its viewpoint The shooting of movement The camera compels the spectator to see as the director wishes The shaping of the com position-The laboratory-Collectivism the basis of film-work. III. TYPES INSTEAD OF ACTORS . 137 IV. CLOSE-UPS IN TIME 146 V. ASYNCHRONISM AS A PRINCIPLE OF SOUND FILM 155 VL RHYTHMIC PROBLEMS IN MY FIRST SOUND FILM 166 VII. NOTES AND APPENDICES A. GLOSSARIAL NOTES . 175 B. SPECIAL NOTES 180 C. ICONOGRAPHY OF PUDOVKINs WORKS . 192 D. INDEX OF NAMES .... 196 The numerals in the text refer to Appendix B. INTRODUCTION: THERE are few experiences more important in the education of a newcomer to motion pic tures than the discovery of V. I. Pudovkins Film Technique and Film Acting. No more valuable manuals of the practice and theory of film making have been written than these two handbooks by the notable Soviet director. So sound are their points of view, so valid their tenets, so revelatory their analyses, that they remain today, twenty years after their initial appear ance, the foremost books of their kind. First published abroad in 1929 and 1933 respectively, Film Technique and Film Acting brought to the art of film making a code of principles and a rationale that marked the mediums analytic coming of age. Until their publication, the motion picture maker had to eke out on his own any intellectual or artistic considera tions of film craft. No explicit body of principles existed upon which the film maker could draw with confidence. Film technique was a more or less hit or miss affair that existed in a kind of fragmentary state which, in the main, leaned heavily upon theatrical methods. These pioneering books made clear at once that movie making need no longer flounder for a methodology or for its own standards. ...
A theory of the soundtrack is concerned with what belongs to the soundtrack, how a soundtrack is effectively organized, how its status in a multimedia object affects the nature of the object, the tools available for its analysis, and the interpretive regime that the theory mandates for determining the meaning, sense, and structure that sound and music bring to film and other audiovisual media. Beyond that, a theory may also delineate the range of possible uses of sound and music, classify the types of relations that films have used for image and sound, identify the central problems, and reflect on and describe effective uses of sound in film. This book summarizes and critiques major theories of the soundtrack from roughly 1929 until today. Rather than providing an exhaustive historical survey, it sketches out the range of theoretical approaches that have been applied to the soundtrack since the commercial introduction of the sound film. The basic theoretical framework of each approach is presented, taking into account the explicit and implicit claims about the soundtrack and its relation to other theories. The organization is both chronological and topical, the former in that the chapters move steadily from early film theory through models of the classical system to more recent critical theories; the latter in that the chapters highlight central issues for each generation: the problem of film itself, then of image and sound, of adequate analytical-descriptive models, and finally of critical-interpretative models.
Is it true that film in the twentieth century experimented with vision more than any other art form? And what visions did it privilege? In this brilliant book, acclaimed film scholar Francesco Casetti situates the cinematic experience within discourses of twentieth-century modernity. He suggests that film defined a unique gaze, not only because it recorded many of the century's most important events, but also because it determined the manner in which they were received. Casetti begins by examining film's nature as a medium in an age obsessed with immediacy, nearness, and accessibility. He considers the myths and rituals cinema constructed on the screen and in the theater and how they provided new images and behaviors that responded to emerging concerns, ideas, and social orders. Film also succeeded in negotiating the different needs of modernity, comparing and uniting conflicting stimuli, providing answers in a world torn apart by conflict, and satisfying a desire for everydayness, as well as lightness, in people's lives. The ability to communicate, the power to inform, and the capacity to negotiate-these are the three factors that defined film's function and outlook and made the medium a relevant and vital art form of its time. So what kind of gaze did film create? Film cultivated a personal gaze, intimately tied to the emergence of point of view, but also able to restore the immediacy of the real; a complex gaze, in which reality and imagination were combined; a piercing gaze, achieved by machine, and yet deeply anthropomorphic; an excited gaze, rich in perceptive stimuli, but also attentive to the spectator's orientation; and an immersive gaze, which gave the impression of being inside the seen world while also maintaining a sense of distance. Each of these gazes combined two different qualities and balanced them. The result was an ever inventive synthesis that strived to bring about true compromises without ever sacrificing the complexity of contradiction. As Casetti demonstrates, film proposed a vision that, in making opposites permeable, modeled itself on an oxymoronic principle. In this sense, film is the key to reading and understanding the modern experience.

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