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The fabrication of an integrated circuit requires a variety of physical and chemical processes to be performed on a semiconductor substrate. In general, these processes fall into three categories: film deposition, patterning, and semiconductor doping. Films of both conductors and insulators are used to connect and isolate transistors and their components. By creating structures of these various components millions of transistors can be built and wired together to form the complex circuitry of modern microelectronic devices. Fundamental to all of these processes is lithography, ie, the formation of three-dimensional relief images on the substrate for subsequent transfer of the pattern to the substrate. This book presents a complete theoretical and practical treatment of the topic of lithography for both students and researchers. It comprises ten detailed chapters plus three appendices with problems provided at the end of each chapter. Additional Information: Visiting http://www.lithoguru.com/textbook/index.html enhances the reader's understanding as the website supplies information on how you can download a free laboratory manual, Optical Lithography Modelling with MATLAB®, to accompany the textbook. You can also contact the author and find help for instructors.
The fabrication of an integrated circuit requires a variety of physical and chemical processes to be performed on a semiconductor substrate. In general, these processes fall into three categories: film deposition, patterning, and semiconductor doping. Films of both conductors and insulators are used to connect and isolate transistors and their components. By creating structures of these various components millions of transistors can be built and wired together to form the complex circuitry of modern microelectronic devices. Fundamental to all of these processes is lithography, ie, the formation of three-dimensional relief images on the substrate for subsequent transfer of the pattern to the substrate. This book presents a complete theoretical and practical treatment of the topic of lithography for both students and researchers. It comprises ten detailed chapters plus three appendices with problems provided at the end of each chapter. Additional Information: Visiting http://www.lithoguru.com/textbook/index.html enhances the reader's understanding as the website supplies information on how you can download a free laboratory manual, Optical Lithography Modelling with MATLAB®, to accompany the textbook. You can also contact the author and find help for instructors.
"This text attempts a difficult task - to capture the fundamental principles of the incredibly fast changing field of semiconductor microlithography in such a way that these principles may be effectively applied to past, present and future microfabrication technology generations. Its focus is on the underlying scientific principles of optical lithography, rather than its practice. It will serve equally well as a university textbook (each chapter has an extensive set of problems) and as an industry resource."--BOOK JACKET.
Semiconductor lithography is one of the key steps in the manufacturing of integrated silicon-based circuits. In fabricating a semiconductor device such as a transistor, a series of hot processes consisting of vacuum film deposition, oxidations, and dopant implantation are all patterned into microscopic circuits by the wet processes of lithography. Lithography, as adopted by the semiconductor industry, is the process of drawing or printing the pattern of an integrated circuit in a resist material. The pattern is formed and overlayed to a previous circuit layer as many as 30 times in the manufacture of logic and memory devices. With the resist pattern acting as a mask, a permanent device structure is formed by subtractive (removal) etching or by additive deposition of metals or insulators. Each process step in lithography uses inorganic or organic materials to physically transform semiconductors of silicon, insulators of oxides, nitrides, and organic polymers, and metals, into useful electronic devices. All forms of electromagnetic radiation are used in the processing. Lithography is a mUltidisciplinary science of materials, processes, and equipment, interacting to produce three-dimensional structures. Many aspects of chemistry, electrical engineering, materials science, and physics are involved. The purpose of this book is to bring together the work of many scientists and engineers over the last 10 years and focus upon the basic resist materials, the lithographic processes, and the fundamental principles behind each lithographic process.
Ever-smaller IC devices are pushing the optical lithography envelope, increasing the importance of resolution enhancement techniques. This tutorial encompasses two decades of research. It discusses theoretical and practical aspects of commonly used techniques, including optical imaging and resolution, modified illumination, optical proximity correction, alternating and attenuating phase-shifting masks, selecting RETs, and second-generation RETs. Useful for students and practicing lithographers.
This text covers lithography process control at several levels, from fundamental through advanced topics. The book is a self-contained tutorial that works both as an introduction to the technology and as a reference for the experienced lithographer. It reviews the foundations of statistical process control as background for advanced topics such as complex processes and feedback. In addition, it presents control methodologies that may be applied to process development pilot lines.
This new edition of the bestselling Microlithography: Science and Technology provides a balanced treatment of theoretical and operational considerations, from elementary concepts to advanced aspects of modern submicron microlithography. Each chapter reflects the current research and practices from the world's leading academic and industrial laboratories detailed by a stellar panel of international experts. New in the Second Edition In addition to updated information on existing material, this new edition features coverage of technologies developed over the last decade since the first edition appeared, including: Immersion Lithography 157nm Lithography Electron Projection Lithography (EPL) Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) Lithography Imprint Lithography Photoresists for 193nm and Immersion Lithography Scatterometry Microlithography: Science and Technology, Second Edition authoritatively covers the physics, chemistry, optics, metrology tools and techniques, resist processing and materials, and fabrication methods involved in the latest generations of microlithography such as immersion lithography and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography. It also looks ahead to the possible future systems and technologies that will bring the next generations to fruition. Loaded with illustrations, equations, tables, and time-saving references to the most current literature, this book is the most comprehensive and reliable source for anyone, from student to seasoned professional, looking to achieve robust, accurate, and cost-effective microlithography processes and systems.

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