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Like real analysis, complex analysis has generated methods indispensable to mathematics and its applications. Exploring the interactions between these two branches, this book uses the results of real analysis to lay the foundations of complex analysis and presents a unified structure of mathematical analysis as a whole. To set the groundwork and mitigate the difficulties newcomers often experience, An Introduction to Complex Analysis begins with a complete review of concepts and methods from real analysis, such as metric spaces and the Green-Gauss Integral Formula. The approach leads to brief, clear proofs of basic statements - a distinct advantage for those mainly interested in applications. Alternate approaches, such as Fichera's proof of the Goursat Theorem and Estermann's proof of the Cauchy's Integral Theorem, are also presented for comparison. Discussions include holomorphic functions, the Weierstrass Convergence Theorem, analytic continuation, isolated singularities, homotopy, Residue theory, conformal mappings, special functions and boundary value problems. More than 200 examples and 150 exercises illustrate the subject matter and make this book an ideal text for university courses on complex analysis, while the comprehensive compilation of theories and succinct proofs make this an excellent volume for reference.
In this volume, the contributing authors deal primarily with the interaction among problems of analysis and geometry in the context of inner product spaces. They present new and old characterizations of inner product spaces among normed linear spaces and the use of such spaces in various research problems of pure and applied mathematics. The methods employed are accessible to students familiar with normed linear spaces. Some of the theorems presented are at the same time simple and challenging.
This book describes and analyses the rules and provisions of the United Nation Convention on the International Sale of Goods of 1980 - CISG-. The authors explain the details of the CISG’s text, report the essence of the scholarly discussions of its issues, and, in particular, present numerous cases decided by courts and arbitration tribunals both as illustrations of problems arising under the CISG and as case law interpreting the Convention. The book is mainly intended to be used in teaching, but it can also help practitioners to understand the structure and basic solutions of sales law issues encoded in the CISG.
As a result of researchers’ and scientists’ increasing interest in pure as well as applied mathematics in non-conventional models, particularly those using fractional calculus, Mittag-Leffler functions have recently caught the interest of the scientific community. Focusing on the theory of the Mittag-Leffler functions, the present volume offers a self-contained, comprehensive treatment, ranging from rather elementary matters to the latest research results. In addition to the theory the authors devote some sections of the work to the applications, treating various situations and processes in viscoelasticity, physics, hydrodynamics, diffusion and wave phenomena, as well as stochastics. In particular the Mittag-Leffler functions allow us to describe phenomena in processes that progress or decay too slowly to be represented by classical functions like the exponential function and its successors. The book is intended for a broad audience, comprising graduate students, university instructors and scientists in the field of pure and applied mathematics, as well as researchers in applied sciences like mathematical physics, theoretical chemistry, bio-mathematics, theory of control and several other related areas.
The calculus of variations is a subject whose beginning can be precisely dated. It might be said to begin at the moment that Euler coined the name calculus of variations but this is, of course, not the true moment of inception of the subject. It would not have been unreasonable if I had gone back to the set of isoperimetric problems considered by Greek mathemati cians such as Zenodorus (c. 200 B. C. ) and preserved by Pappus (c. 300 A. D. ). I have not done this since these problems were solved by geometric means. Instead I have arbitrarily chosen to begin with Fermat's elegant principle of least time. He used this principle in 1662 to show how a light ray was refracted at the interface between two optical media of different densities. This analysis of Fermat seems to me especially appropriate as a starting point: He used the methods of the calculus to minimize the time of passage cif a light ray through the two media, and his method was adapted by John Bernoulli to solve the brachystochrone problem. There have been several other histories of the subject, but they are now hopelessly archaic. One by Robert Woodhouse appeared in 1810 and another by Isaac Todhunter in 1861.
During the years since the first edition of this well-known monograph appeared, the subject (the geometry of the zeros of a complex polynomial) has continued to display the same outstanding vitality as it did in the first 150 years of its history, beginning with the contributions of Cauchy and Gauss. Thus, the number of entries in the bibliography of this edition had to be increased from about 300 to about 600 and the book enlarged by one third. It now includes a more extensive treatment of Hurwitz polynomials and other topics. The new material on infrapolynomials, abstract polynomials, and matrix methods is of particular interest.

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