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This book shows how the application of fuzzy logic can benefit management, group decision making, strategic planning, supply chain management and other business imperatives. The theoretical analysis is fully supported by real-life case studies. The book develops themes that businesses can use to master effectiveness and quality, work with flexibility, and support continuous learning in the organization and the individual.
In both rich and poor nations, public resources for health care are inadequate to meet demand. Policy makers and health care providers must determine how to provide the most effective health care to citizens using the limited resources that are available. This chapter describes current and future challenges in the delivery of health care, and outlines the role that operations research (OR) models can play in helping to solve those problems. The chapter concludes with an overview of this book – its intended audience, the areas covered, and a description of the subsequent chapters. KEY WORDS Health care delivery, Health care planning HEALTH CARE DELIVERY: PROBLEMS AND CHALLENGES 3 1.1 WORLDWIDE HEALTH: THE PAST 50 YEARS Human health has improved significantly in the last 50 years. In 1950, global life expectancy was 46 years [1]. That figure rose to 61 years by 1980 and to 67 years by 1998 [2]. Much of these gains occurred in low- and middle-income countries, and were due in large part to improved nutrition and sanitation, medical innovations, and improvements in public health infrastructure.
Paul Williams, a leading authority on modeling in integer programming, has written a concise, readable introduction to the science and art of using modeling in logic for integer programming. Written for graduate and postgraduate students, as well as academics and practitioners, the book is divided into four chapters that all avoid the typical format of definitions, theorems and proofs and instead introduce concepts and results within the text through examples. References are given at the end of each chapter to the more mathematical papers and texts on the subject, and exercises are included to reinforce and expand on the material in the chapter. Methods of solving with both logic and IP are given and their connections are described. Applications in diverse fields are discussed, and Williams shows how IP models can be expressed as satisfiability problems and solved as such.
"Combat Modeling" is a systematic learning resource and reference text for the quantitative analysis of combat. After a brief overview, authors Washburn and Kress present individual chapters on shooting without feedback; shooting with feedback; target defense; attrition models; game theory and wargames; search; unmanned aerial vehicles; and terror and insurgency. Three appendices provide a review of basic probability concepts, probability distributions, and Markov models; an introduction to optimization models; and a discussion of Monte-Carlo simulations. Drawing on their many years of experience at the Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey, California, Washburn and Kress have created a reference that will provide the tools and techniques for analysts involved in the underpinnings of combat decisions. This is a book that can be used as a military manual, reference book, and textbook for military courses on this vital subject.
In Risk Analysis of Complex and Uncertain Systems acknowledged risk authority Tony Cox shows all risk practitioners how Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA) can be used to improve risk management decisions and policies. It develops and illustrates QRA methods for complex and uncertain biological, engineering, and social systems – systems that have behaviors that are just too complex to be modeled accurately in detail with high confidence – and shows how they can be applied to applications including assessing and managing risks from chemical carcinogens, antibiotic resistance, mad cow disease, terrorist attacks, and accidental or deliberate failures in telecommunications network infrastructure. This book was written for a broad range of practitioners, including decision risk analysts, operations researchers and management scientists, quantitative policy analysts, economists, health and safety risk assessors, engineers, and modelers.
Multiple Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) is the study of methods and procedures by which concerns about multiple conflicting criteria can be formally incorporated into the management planning process. A key area of research in OR/MS, MCDM is now being applied in many new areas, including GIS systems, AI, and group decision making. This volume is in effect the third in a series of Springer books by these editors (all in the ISOR series), and it brings all the latest developments in MCDM into focus. Looking at developments in the applications, methodologies and foundations of MCDM, it presents research from leaders in the field on such topics as Problem Structuring Methodologies; Measurement Theory and MCDA; Recent Developments in Evolutionary Multiobjective Optimization; Habitual Domains and Dynamic MCDM in Changeable Spaces; Stochastic Multicriteria Acceptability Analysis; and many more chapters.
An Introduction to Fuzzy Logic Applications in Intelligent Systems consists of a collection of chapters written by leading experts in the field of fuzzy sets. Each chapter addresses an area where fuzzy sets have been applied to situations broadly related to intelligent systems. The volume provides an introduction to and an overview of recent applications of fuzzy sets to various areas of intelligent systems. Its purpose is to provide information and easy access for people new to the field. The book also serves as an excellent reference for researchers in the field and those working in the specifics of systems development. People in computer science, especially those in artificial intelligence, knowledge-based systems, and intelligent systems will find this to be a valuable sourcebook. Engineers, particularly control engineers, will also have a strong interest in this book. Finally, the book will be of interest to researchers working in decision support systems, operations research, decision theory, management science and applied mathematics. An Introduction to Fuzzy Logic Applications in Intelligent Systems may also be used as an introductory text and, as such, it is tutorial in nature.

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