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This book is about the relationship between firm dynamics, innovation and globalization, the processes that are essential for long term economic growth and welfare creation. This volume deals with these three issues in three sections titled respectively: entrepreneurship, new firm formation and growth; productivity-innovation-growthnexus; globalization, multinational firms and producers’ dynamics. The book presents new studies written by distinguished researchers in the field, who use state-of-the-art methodologies and extensive sources of firm- and plant-level longitudinal data to analyze and understand these major economic issues facing modern economies. In the first section, the book proposes two comprehensive introductory surveys which explore in detail the underpinnings of entrepreneurship, new firm formation and growth in advanced and developing countries. The second fundamental issue, productivity-innovation and firm dynamics, is approached by examining key drivers of selection mechanisms such as size, scale elasticity, innovative efforts, financial fragility of the firms, barriers to entry and exit, capital and financial market distortions, institutional inefficiencies and other market imperfections which affect the ability of firms to expand or enter. The third section examines differences, linkages and intertwined evolution of foreign and domestic firms in their dynamics of survival and growth in different institutional contexts and periods. Each chapter includes a detailed discussion of the implications of the respective analyses for enterprise policy. In a concluding chapter the overall implications for enterprise policy of the analyses presented in the different chapters are drawn by the Editors. This approach ensures that the book is integrated around a coherent central theme in comprehensive framework. The book responds to a growing concern among scholars, professionals, and policy makers over the recent decades about firm ability to survive and compete in a context of increasing globalization and international competition. The approach adopted is both theoretical and empirical with consideration of paradigmatic case studies in Europe, Africa and Asia, providing new evidence on developed, developing and transition economies in a comparative perspective. The cases selected represent different levels of development, different firms strategies and paths, with distinct outcomes. The book is an essential reading for scholars and students concerned with industry development, public policy and globalization, as well as to all those involved professionally in such issues.
Corruption is increasingly placed on top of the agenda of national governments and supra national institutions, such as the OECD, UN or the World Bank. A necessary condition for promoting sustainable economic growth is the pre-existence of a stable political system which is able to control corruption. Corruption, however, is a very complex issue, associated with institutional and cultural specificities, personality traits related to individualistic values, and criminal personalities. In this book the social, political and economic realities that prevail in particular settings are viewed from an interdisciplinary, multidimensional, and a multi country perspective. This book is divided into three parts. The first part presents a comprehensive, theoretical and empirical framework of corruption with an overview of literature on economic growth and corruption. Part two, encompasses the in-depth analysis of several countries, ranging from middle corrupted contexts like Portugal, to highly corrupted countries including Serbia, Russia, Thailand and China- the latter viewed from the perspective of firms from a very low corruption country such as Finland. The final part explores the prevention and control of corruption, looking at the public sector in Thailand and fighting corruption with different strategies. This volume is of the interest of those who study international economics, development economics or organised crime.
Economic globalization is the process of increased integration among nations, characterized and fostered by three elements of international trade- goods and services, international capital flows, and international migration. In recent decades, international economic integration has increased both in depth (more pronounced bilateral connections) and in breadth (connections have become more commonplace), thus, the global economy has become increasingly integrated. Societies receive tremendous net benefits from economic globalization, however, accessing these benefits may be limited by cross-societal cultural differences. This book examines cultural differences as a potential impediment to economic integration. Relying on rigorous statistical and econometric techniques, the analyses indicate that higher transaction costs, due to greater cultural distance, inhibit both the volume of trade flows and the successful completion of trade deals. Cultural distance appears to reduce foreign direct investment, as well as divert investment to less culturally-distant destinations. This book finds a negative relationship between migration flows and cultural distance. It considers the common criticism that repeated and intensified integration diminishes cultural differences, resulting in cultural homogeneity. This book offers the first comprehensive examination of the relationships between cross-societal cultural differences and economic globalization. It will be of great interest to scholars and students who study globalization, international economics, and cultural studies.
In the new global economy, more countries have opened up to international competition and rapid capital flows. However, in the triad the process of globalization is rather asymmetric. With a rising role of multinational companies there are favorable prospects for higher global growth and economic catching-up, respectively. Theoretical analysis suggests key ingredients of sustained growth, but there is also a new concept of a long-term equilibrium income gap in which convergence is rather unlikely. The analysis also picks up European and US labor market issues in the context of economic globalization and raises the question of which EU policies in the field of labor market reform and of innovation policies are adequate.
Economic globalization has intensified since the 1980s and created faster channels of international interdependence and an accelerating technology race. In this new asymmetric world economy the EU is facing a dynamic and flexible US system which takes advantage of the global quest for foreign direct investment. Innovation policies in the EU - in particular in Germany - are found to be rather inadequate. There are also new theoretical challenges where a "structural macro model" and a Schumpetrian model of innovation and full employment are presented as new approaches. Besides theoretical challenges the increasing global dynamics raise new problems of international policy coordination which could lead to unsustainable economic globalization.
In this book Rajneesh Narula examines the interdependence of globalization and technological innovation at two levels: first, between locations, by examining the role of cross-border initiatives in the innovation process; second, between corporate entities, by studying the dynamics of inter-firm R&D collaboration. Examines the international aspect of the interdependence of globalization and technology. Explores the role of cross-border interdependence in the innovation process, as well as interdependence between firms. Reveals an interesting paradox: locations and firms are increasingly interdependent through supranational organisations and the flow of investments, technologies, ideas, and people; but knowledge creation suffers from ‘inertia’ and remains concentrated in a few locations. Draws on a wide variety of data at the firm and national level in the sphere of R&D and technological innovation. Spells out important lessons for both policy makers and managers on industrial policy as well as the organisation of research and development by firms.
Jorg Bensinger, a group head of Audi corporation's R&D depart ment, had been waiting for long to find a chance to advertise his idea of a four-wheel drive for passenger cars to one of the board mem bers. Favorable experiences had been collected in drive tests with the lItis, a jeep-like car developed for use in the German army. The ex periences showed extremely good performance on icy roads and in snow. Bensinger's chance came in February of 1977, when he could talk to Ferdinand Piech, then R&D vice president of Audi and a technology buff. At this time Audi wasn't quite considered as a tech nological leader in the public. Technology based innovations were expected from Mercedes or Porsche by many customers. Piech, Ben singer, and others sensed that introducing the four-wheel drive to passenger cars could initiate a strategic change. Under great secrecy development work and prototype construction were commissioned. One obstacle seemed to be space requirements for the gear-box. Hans Nedvidek, former race-track engineer in the Mercedes team, was assigned to the team, and he developed an ingenious solution to the problem. It took until September of 1977 until other board mem bers were informed, and after some rallying the board found a con sensus in the next month to authorize further development steps for a four-wheel drive car. However, Audi is a subsidiary of Volkswagen Corp. The accord of the much bigger mother had to be secured.

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