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This book examines the international law of forcible intervention in civil wars, in particular the role of party-consent in affecting the legality of such intervention. In modern international law, it is a near consensus that no state can use force against another - the main exceptions being self-defence and actions mandated by a UN Security Council resolution. However, one more potential exception exists: forcible intervention undertaken upon the invitation or consent of a government, seeking assistance in confronting armed opposition groups within its territory. Although the latter exception is of increasing importance, the numerous questions it raises have received scant attention in the current body of literature. This volume fills this gap by analyzing the consent-exception in a wide context, and attempting to delineate its limits, including cases in which government consent power is not only negated, but might be transferred to opposition groups. The book also discusses the concept of consensual intervention in contemporary international law, in juxtaposition to traditional legal doctrines. It traces the development of law in this context by drawing from historical examples such as the Spanish Civil War, as well as recent cases such those of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Somalia, Libya, and Syria. This book will be of much interest to students of international law, civil wars, the Responsibility to Protect, war and conflict studies, and IR in general.
12 The law of the sea.
Are civil conflicts and coups d'etat matters of international concern, or questions of national interest only? How can the increasingly common practice of condemnation and intervention by the United Nations and individual States into situations of extreme political violence be understood? Will civil conflict one day be considered illegal under international law, in the same way as international war? Offering a penetrating analysis that unpacks the relationships between political violence, international policy and international law, and explores international practice in more than 30 civil conflicts, this book challenges many assumptions we hold about the dividingline between domestic and international affairs, whether democracy is an international norm, and how long the international community is prepared to sit on the sidelines and allow ruthless political violence to determine political leadership in nations. This book fills an important void andcaptures the complexities and tensions inherent in an area where practice has moved faster than theory, and pragmatism clashes with idealism.
Anthony Cullen advances an argument for a particular approach to the interpretation of non-international armed conflict in international humanitarian law. The first part examines the origins of the 'armed conflict' concept and its development as the lower threshold for the application of international humanitarian law. Here the meaning of the term is traced from its use in the Hague Regulations of 1899 until the present day. The second part focuses on a number of contemporary developments which have affected the scope of non-international armed conflict. The case law of the International Criminal Tribunals for the former Yugoslavia has been especially influential and the definition of non-international armed conflict provided by this institution is examined in detail. It is argued that this concept represents the most authoritative definition of the threshold and that, despite differences in interpretation, there exist reasons to interpret an identical threshold of application in the Rome Statute.
It is generally considered that the UN Security Council has been galvanised since the end of the Cold War. However, the existence and development of armed conflicts remain the reality in the international scene. Is the upsurge in instances of invoking Chapter VII of the UN Charter truly a sign of the invigoration of the Security Council’s authority or mere evidence of its failure to prevent the aggravation of armed conflicts? To what extent is the Security Council authorised to exercise the peacekeeping power in order to take a more flexible approach to conflict management from an earlier stage of conflict? This book explores the potential of the UN peacekeeping power, placing Article 40 of the UN Charter at the centre of the legal regime governing peacekeeping measures. It traces the origins of peacekeeping measures primarily in the experience of the League of Nations and identifies Article 40 of the Charter as the primary legal basis for, and the legal restraints upon, the exercise of the peacekeeping power. It examines the regulatory framework within which the United Nations, particularly the Security Council, is authorised and may even be required to direct peacekeeping measures to prevent the aggravation of armed conflicts. It suggests that the legal accountability of the Security Council in directing peacekeeping measures will be enhanced by utilising procedural mechanisms for self-regulation
Originally published: Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, [1971]
Experience and research have long shown an intrinsic link between human rights, conflict and development. This interdependence between different areas, doctrines, and disciplines calls for a genuinely coherent, holistic approach in International Affairs. With the challenges the work for the protection and respect of humanity encounters, this book intends to bring together articles and ideas that indicate the complexity of such an endeavor. The chapters, written by academics and practitioners encompass snapshots of crucial development lines as well as conceptual ideas and frameworks. In doing so the book provides insight to the principal understanding that peace efforts, encapsulating human rights, conflict management and development, can only be sustained and flourish as long as conflicting parties have at least a minimal consensus and will to settle their differences peacefully. As a Liber Amicorum for Joseph Voyame the book honors the determination for humanity and respect for human dignity and peaceful mitigation of conflict which marked his life and work.

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