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Since the publication of my lecture notes, Functional Differential Equations in the Applied Mathematical Sciences series, many new developments have occurred. As a consequence, it was decided not to make a few corrections and additions for a second edition of those notes, but to present a more compre hensive theory. The present work attempts to consolidate those elements of the theory which have stabilized and also to include recent directions of research. The following chapters were not discussed in my original notes. Chapter 1 is an elementary presentation of linear differential difference equations with constant coefficients of retarded and neutral type. Chapter 4 develops the recent theory of dissipative systems. Chapter 9 is a new chapter on perturbed systems. Chapter 11 is a new presentation incorporating recent results on the existence of periodic solutions of autonomous equations. Chapter 12 is devoted entirely to neutral equations. Chapter 13 gives an introduction to the global and generic theory. There is also an appendix on the location of the zeros of characteristic polynomials. The remainder of the material has been completely revised and updated with the most significant changes occurring in Chapter 3 on the properties of solutions, Chapter 5 on stability, and Chapter lOon behavior near a periodic orbit.
The present book builds upon an earlier work of J. Hale, "Theory of Func tional Differential Equations" published in 1977. We have tried to maintain the spirit of that book and have retained approximately one-third of the material intact. One major change was a complete new presentation of lin ear systems (Chapters 6~9) for retarded and neutral functional differential equations. The theory of dissipative systems (Chapter 4) and global at tractors was completely revamped as well as the invariant manifold theory (Chapter 10) near equilibrium points and periodic orbits. A more complete theory of neutral equations is presented (see Chapters 1, 2, 3, 9, and 10). Chapter 12 is completely new and contains a guide to active topics of re search. In the sections on supplementary remarks, we have included many references to recent literature, but, of course, not nearly all, because the subject is so extensive. Jack K. Hale Sjoerd M. Verduyn Lunel Contents Preface............................................................ v Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. Linear differential difference equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 . . . . . . 1.1 Differential and difference equations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 . . . . . . . . 1.2 Retarded differential difference equations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 . . . . . . . 1.3 Exponential estimates of x( ¢,f) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 . . . . . . . . . . 1.4 The characteristic equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.5 The fundamental solution. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.6 The variation-of-constants formula............................. 23 1. 7 Neutral differential difference equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 . . . . . . . 1.8 Supplementary remarks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. Functional differential equations: Basic theory . . . . . . . . 38 . . 2.1 Definition of a retarded equation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 . . . . . . . . . 2.2 Existence, uniqueness, and continuous dependence . . . . . . . . . . 39 . . . 2.3 Continuation of solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 . . . . . . . . . . . .
Abstract semilinear functional differential equations arise from many biological, chemical, and physical systems which are characterized by both spatial and temporal variables and exhibit various spatio-temporal patterns. The aim of this book is to provide an introduction of the qualitative theory and applications of these equations from the dynamical systems point of view. The required prerequisites for that book are at a level of a graduate student. The style of presentation will be appealing to people trained and interested in qualitative theory of ordinary and functional differential equations.
It is hoped that these notes will serve as an introduction to the subject of functional differential equations. The topics are very selective and represent only one particular viewpoint. Complementary material dealing with extensions of closely related topics are given in the notes at the end. A short bibliography is appended as source material for further study. The author is very grateful to the Mathematics Department at UCLA for having extended the invitation to give a series of lectures on functional differ ential equations during the Applied Mathematics Year, 1968-1969. The extreme interest and sincere criticism of the members of the audience were a constant source of inspiration in the preparation of the lectures as well as the notes. Except for Sections 6, 32, 33, 34 and some other minor modifications, the notes represent the material covered in two quarters at UCLA. The author wishes to thank Katherine McDougall and Sandra Spinacci for their excellent preparation of the text. The author is also indebted to Eleanor Addison for her work on the drawings and to Dr. H. T. Banks for his careful proofreading of this material. Jack K. Hale Providence March 4, 1971 v TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. INTRODUCTION •••••.•..••.•••••••••.•••..•.••••••.••••••.••.••.•••.••• 1 2 • A GENERAL INITIAL VALUE PROBLEM 11 3 • EXISTENCE 13 4. CONTINUATION OF SOLUTIONS 16 CONTINUOUS DEPENDENCE AND UNIQUENESS 21 5.
This book provides a crash course on various methods from the bifurcation theory of Functional Differential Equations (FDEs). FDEs arise very naturally in economics, life sciences and engineering and the study of FDEs has been a major source of inspiration for advancement in nonlinear analysis and infinite dimensional dynamical systems. The book summarizes some practical and general approaches and frameworks for the investigation of bifurcation phenomena of FDEs depending on parameters with chap. This well illustrated book aims to be self contained so the readers will find in this book all relevant materials in bifurcation, dynamical systems with symmetry, functional differential equations, normal forms and center manifold reduction. This material was used in graduate courses on functional differential equations at Hunan University (China) and York University (Canada).
Features new results and up-to-date advances in modeling and solving differential equations Introducing the various classes of functional differential equations, Functional Differential Equations: Advances and Applications presents the needed tools and topics to study the various classes of functional differential equations and is primarily concerned with the existence, uniqueness, and estimates of solutions to specific problems. The book focuses on the general theory of functional differential equations, provides the requisite mathematical background, and details the qualitative behavior of solutions to functional differential equations. The book addresses problems of stability, particularly for ordinary differential equations in which the theory can provide models for other classes of functional differential equations, and the stability of solutions is useful for the application of results within various fields of science, engineering, and economics. Functional Differential Equations: Advances and Applications also features: • Discussions on the classes of equations that cannot be solved to the highest order derivative, and in turn, addresses existence results and behavior types • Oscillatory motion and solutions that occur in many real-world phenomena as well as in man-made machines • Numerous examples and applications with a specific focus on ordinary differential equations and functional differential equations with finite delay • An appendix that introduces generalized Fourier series and Fourier analysis after periodicity and almost periodicity • An extensive Bibliography with over 550 references that connects the presented concepts to further topical exploration Functional Differential Equations: Advances and Applications is an ideal reference for academics and practitioners in applied mathematics, engineering, economics, and physics. The book is also an appropriate textbook for graduate- and PhD-level courses in applied mathematics, differential and difference equations, differential analysis, and dynamics processes. CONSTANTIN CORDUNEANU, PhD, is Emeritus Professor in the Department of Mathematics at The University of Texas at Arlington, USA. The author of six books and over 200 journal articles, he is currently Associate Editor for seven journals; a member of the American Mathematical Society, Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, and the Romanian Academy; and past president of the American Romanian Academy of Arts and Sciences. YIZENG LI, PhD, is Professor in the Department of Mathematics at Tarrant County College, USA. He is a member of the Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics. MEHRAN MAHDAVI, PhD, is Professor in the Department of Mathematics at Bowie State University, USA. The author of numerous journal articles, he is a member of the American Mathematical Society, Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, and the Mathematical Association of America.

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