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This book covers the fundamentals of the earth sciences and examines their role in controlling the global occurrence and distribution of hydrocarbon resources. It explains the principles, practices and the terminology associated with the upstream sector of the oil industry. Key topics include a look at the elements and processes involved in the generation and accumulation of hydrocarbons and demonstration of how geological and geophysical techniques can be applied to explore for oil and gas. There is detailed investigation into the nature and chemical composition of petroleum, and of surface and subsurface maps, including their construction and uses in upstream operations. Other topics include well-logging techniques and their use in determining rock and fluid properties, definitions and classification of resources and reserves, conventional oil and gas reserves, their quantification and global distribution as well as unconventional hydrocarbons, their worldwide occurrence and the resources potentially associated with them. Finally, practical analysis is concentrated on the play concept, play maps, and the construction of petroleum events charts and quantification of risk in exploration ventures. As the first volume in the Imperial College Lectures in Petroleum Engineering, and based on a lecture series on the same topic, An Introduction to Petroleum Geoscience provides the introductory information needed for students of the earth sciences, petroleum engineering, engineering and geoscience. This volume also includes an introduction to the series by Martin Blunt and Alain Gringarten, of Imperial College London.