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This is a foundation for arithmetic topology - a new branch of mathematics which is focused upon the analogy between knot theory and number theory. Starting with an informative introduction to its origins, namely Gauss, this text provides a background on knots, three manifolds and number fields. Common aspects of both knot theory and number theory, for instance knots in three manifolds versus primes in a number field, are compared throughout the book. These comparisons begin at an elementary level, slowly building up to advanced theories in later chapters. Definitions are carefully formulated and proofs are largely self-contained. When necessary, background information is provided and theory is accompanied with a number of useful examples and illustrations, making this a useful text for both undergraduates and graduates in the field of knot theory, number theory and geometry. â€‹
This 3. edition is an introduction to classical knot theory. It contains many figures and some tables of invariants of knots. This comprehensive account is an indispensable reference source for anyone interested in both classical and modern knot theory. Most of the topics considered in the book are developed in detail; only the main properties of fundamental groups and some basic results of combinatorial group theory are assumed to be known.
The second Women in Numbers workshop (WIN2) was held November 6-11, 2011, at the Banff International Research Station (BIRS) in Banff, Alberta, Canada. During the workshop, group leaders presented open problems in various areas of number theory, and working groups tackled those problems in collaborations begun at the workshop and continuing long after. This volume collects articles written by participants of WIN2. Survey papers written by project leaders are designed to introduce areas of active research in number theory to advanced graduate students and recent PhDs. Original research articles by the project groups detail their work on the open problems tackled during and after WIN2. Other articles in this volume contain new research on related topics by women number theorists. The articles collected here encompass a wide range of topics in number theory including Galois representations, the Tamagawa number conjecture, arithmetic intersection formulas, Mahler measures, Newton polygons, the Dwork family, elliptic curves, cryptography, and supercongruences. WIN2 and this Proceedings volume are part of the Women in Numbers network, aimed at increasing the visibility of women researchers' contributions to number theory and at increasing the participation of women mathematicians in number theory and related fields. This book is co-published with the Centre de Recherches MathÃ©matiques.
Knot theory is a rapidly developing field of research with many applications, not only for mathematics. The present volume, written by a well-known specialist, gives a complete survey of this theory from its very beginnings to today's most recent research results. An indispensable book for everyone concerned with knot theory.
This book is a study of combinatorial structures of 3-mani- folds, especially Haken 3-manifolds. Specifically, it is concerned with Heegard graphs in Haken 3-manifolds, i.e., with graphs whose complements have a free fundamental group. These graphs always exist. They fix not only a combinatorial stucture but also a presentation for the fundamental group of the underlying 3-manifold. The starting point of the book is the result that the intersection of Heegard graphs with incompressible surfaces, or hierarchies of such surfaces, is very rigid. A number of finiteness results lead up to a ri- gidity theorem for Heegard graphs. The book is intended for graduate students and researchers in low-dimensional topolo- gy as well as combinatorial theory. It is self-contained and requires only a basic knowledge of the theory of 3-manifolds