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Between 2010 and 2025, most of the countries of Latin America will commemorate two centuries of independence, and Latin Americans have much to celebrate at this milestone. Most countries have enjoyed periods of sustained growth, while inequality is showing modest declines and the middle class is expanding. Dictatorships have been left behind, and all major political actors seem to have accepted the democratic process and the rule of law. Latin Americans have entered the digital world, routinely using the Internet and social media. These new realities in Latin America call for a new introduction to its history and culture, which Latin America at 200 amply provides. Taking a reader-friendly approach that focuses on the big picture and uses concrete examples, Phillip Berryman highlights what Latin Americans are doing to overcome extreme poverty and underdevelopment. He starts with issues facing cities, then considers agriculture and farming, business, the environment, inequality and class, race and ethnicity, gender, and religion. His survey of Latin American history leads into current issues in economics, politics and governance, and globalization. Berryman also acknowledges the ongoing challenges facing Latin Americans, especially crime and corruption, and the efforts being made to combat them. Based on decades of experience, research, and travel, as well as recent studies from the World Bank and other agencies, Latin America at 200 will be essential both as a classroom text and as an introduction for general readers.
Foreign direct investment (FDI) funding for Latin America and the Caribbean dropped in 2002. The decline reflected major changes in the world and regional economies. This report examines trends and factors that have contributed to the fall in FDI in that region since 2000. It is divided into three chapters. The first provides a broad review of FDI trends in Latin America and the Caribbean. The second offers the reader a comprehensive discussion of investment flows to the Andean Community countries. The third analyzes flows from transnational banks to the banking sector and assesses what impact they have on the region.
This comprehensive book on pensions in Latin America and the Caribbean examines recent demographic trends, pension design and entitlements before providing a series of country profiles. The special chapter examines coverage and adequacy.
In November, 1986, the Institution of Mining and Metallurgy held the 'Mining Latin AmericalMineria Latinoamericana' conference in Chile - a conference covering a broad range of topics relevant to South America and, in that sense, complementary to its regional 'Asian Mining' and 'African Mining' series of events. This first conference proved to be a resounding success and confirmed that Chile, in particular, and South America, in general, were indeed ideal for the Institution in the pursuit of its objective of disseminating information related to the international minerals industry. In relation to South America, the Chilean conference was followed, in 1988, by that entitled 'Silver - exploration, mining and treatment', * which was held in Mexico City; in February, 1995, Caracas will host the 'Mineral resources of VenezuelalRecursos minerales de Venezuela' conference, serious planning for which is under way as I write. The Institution of Mining and Metallurgy, in association with the Instituto de Ingenieros de Minas de Chile, Mineria Chilena and Latinomineria agreed that the second 'Mining Latin AmericalMineria Latinoamerica' conference should be held, again in Santiago, in May, 1994, on the occasion of the 1994 Expomin show, which had been been particularly successful in attracting visitors from mining countries worldwide in 1992 and which will continue, at two-yearly intervals, to the year 2000 and, no doubt, beyond.
Coastal and marine ecosystems, some severely degraded, other still pristine, control rich resources of inshore environments and coastal seas of Latin America's Pacific and Atlantic margins. Conflicts between the needs of the region's nations and diminishing revenues and environmental quality have induced awareness of coastal ecological problems and motivated financial support for restoration and management. The volume provides a competent review on the structure, processes and function of 22 important Latin American coastal marine ecosystems. Each contribution describes the environmental settings, biotic components and structure of the system, considers trophic processes and energy flow, evaluates the modifying influence of natural and human perturbations, and suggests management needs. Although the focus of the book is on basic ecological research, the results have application for coastal managers.
Banking crises occur in both industrial and developing countries, but in Latin America they last longer, affect a larger segment of the banking industry and cost the public more. In Banking Crises in Latin America, distinguished policymakers, academicians and bankers examine the main causes of such crises, how governments can manage them more effectively, and how they can be prevented. The six sections of the book focus on the salient features of Latin American banking systems, the macroeconomic causes of banking crises, the microeconomic factors leading to bank difficulties, and the particular constraints that make the management of banking crises more complicated in Latin America than in industrial countries. Policy recommendations at both the macro- and microeconomic level aim to improve the resilience of banking systems to unanticipated shocks. The last section of the book turns the focus to experiences of individual countries. Contributors include Eduardo Aninat, Guillermo Calvo, Michel Camdessus, Sebastian Edwards, Enrique Iglesias, Lawrence Summers and Paul Volcker.
This volume is a comprehensive, state-of-the-art clinical reference on spondylolysis, spondylolisthesis, and degenerative spondylolisthesis. Leading experts from the United States, Europe, and Israel present the latest concepts and findings on the biomechanics, clinical presentation, imaging, diagnosis, natural evolution, and conservative and surgical treatment of these vertebral conditions in adults and in children. A major portion of the book focuses on current strategies for surgical treatment in adults.

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