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The aim of this book is to provide information about performing experi ments at low temperatures, as well as basic facts concerning the low tem perature properties of liquid and solid matter. To orient the reader, I begin with chapters on these low temperature properties. The major part of the book is then devoted to refrigeration techniques and to the physics on which they are based. Of equal importance, of course, are the definition and measurement of temperature; hence low temperature thermometry is extensively discussed in subsequent chapters. Finally, I describe a variety of design and construction techniques which have turned out to be useful over the years. The content of the book is based on the three-hour-per-week lecture course which I have given several times at the University of Bayreuth between 1983 and 1991. It should be particularly suited for advanced stu dents whose intended masters (diploma) or Ph.D. subject is experimental condensed matter physics at low temperatures. However, I believe that the book will also be of value to experienced scientists, since it describes sev eral very recent advances in experimental low temperature physics and technology, for example, new developments in nuclear refrigeration and thermometry.
This practical book provides recipes for the construction of devices used in low temperature experimentation. Advice for solving various experimental problems at low temperatures include bridge and frequency measuring techniques, recommended procedures for reducing vibrations and stray electric signals, and calculations for optimizing the pumping seeds of gases. Edited by Nobel laureate Robert Richardson and Eric N. Smith, both of Cornell University, this volume emphasizes 'what works', rather than what might be the optimum method, and lists current sources for purchasing components and equipment.
For the last few years astrophysicists and elementary particle physicists have been working jointly on the following fascinating phenomena: 1. The solar neutrino puzzle and the question: What happens to the neutrinos on their way from the sun to the earth? 2. The growing evidence that our universe is filled with about 10 times more matter than is visible and the question: What is dark matter made of? 3. The supernovae explosions and the question: What do neutrinos tell us about such explosions and vice versa? The experimental investigation of these phenomena is difficult and involves unconventional techniques. These are presently under development, and bring together such seemingly disparate disciplines as astrophysics and elementary particle physics on the one hand and superconductivity and solid-state physics on the other. This book contains the proceedings of a workshop held in March 1987 at which the above subjects and their experimental investigation were discussed. The proposed experimental methods are very new. They involve frontier developments in low temperature and solid-state physics. The book should be useful to researchers and students who actively work on these subjects or plan to enter the field. It also offers the non-expert reader with some physics background a good survey of the activities in this field.
This text presents the conceptual and technical developments of the subject without unduly compromising on either the historical or logical perspective. It also covers the tremendous range of scientifically deep and technologically revolutionary applications of thermodynamics. The text explains how thermodynamics evolved from a few basic laws that were amazingly successful and with tremendous range, without even knowing about the atomic structure of matter or the laws governing the behavior of atoms.
This book reviews recent developments of quantum Monte Carlo methods and some remarkable applications to interacting quantum spin systems and strongly correlated electron systems. It contains twenty-two papers by thirty authors. Some of the features are as follows. The first paper gives the foundations of the standard quantum Monte Carlo method, including some recent results on higher-order decompositions of exponential operators and ordered exponentials. The second paper presents a general review of quantum Monte Carlo methods used in the present book. One of the most challenging problems in the field of quantum Monte Carlo techniques, the negative-sign problem, is also discussed and new methods proposed to partially overcome it. In addition, low-dimensional quantum spin systems are studied. Some interesting applications of quantum Monte Carlo methods to fermion systems are also presented to investigate the role of strong correlations and fluctuations of electrons and to clarify the mechanism of high-c superconductivity. Not only thermal properties but also quantum-mechanical ground-state properties have been studied by the projection technique using auxiliary fields. Further, the Haldane gap is confirmed by numerical calculations. Active researchers in the forefront of condensed matter physics as well as young graduate students who want to start learning the quantum Monte Carlo methods will find this book useful.
Cryogenics (low temperature physics) has become a critical component of every day life through its use in satellite communications, medical diagnosis, natural gas transport, infrared surveillance, and many more applications. In this new edition of one of the leading books in the field, the authors explain the underlying principles and effects of cooling systems, liquid nitrogen, liquid helium and the approach to absolute zero. Accompanied by instructive illustrations throughout, the text covers all aspects of cryogenics including, a historical perspective, basic physics, construction techniques, thermometry, materials data, references and data sources, and information on commercial suppliers. No other book provides such a focused and up-to-date look at the techniques and practical applications of low temperature experimentation.

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