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This textbook contains information essential for successful experiments at low temperatures. The first chapters describe the low-temperature properties of liquids and solid matter, including liquid helium. Most of the book is devoted to refrigeration techniques and the physics on which they rely, the definition of temperature, thermometry, and a variety of design and construction techniques. The lively and practical style make it easy to read and particularly useful to anyone beginning research in low-temperature physics. Low-temperature scientists will find it of great value due to its extensive compilation of materials data and relevant new results.
This practical book provides recipes for the construction of devices used in low temperature experimentation. It emphasizes what works, rather than what might be the optimum method, and lists current sources for purchasing components and equipment.
Cryogenics (low temperature physics) has become a critical component of every day life through its use in satellite communications, medical diagnosis, natural gas transport, infrared surveillance, and many more applications. In this new edition of one of the leading books in the field, the authors explain the underlying principles and effects of cooling systems, liquid nitrogen, liquid helium and the approach to absolute zero. Accompanied by instructive illustrations throughout, the text covers all aspects of cryogenics including, a historical perspective, basic physics, construction techniques, thermometry, materials data, references and data sources, and information on commercial suppliers. No other book provides such a focused and up-to-date look at the techniques and practical applications of low temperature experimentation.
This text presents the conceptual and technical developments of the subject without unduly compromising on either the historical or logical perspective. It also covers the tremendous range of scientifically deep and technologically revolutionary applications of thermodynamics. The text explains how thermodynamics evolved from a few basic laws that were amazingly successful and with tremendous range, without even knowing about the atomic structure of matter or the laws governing the behavior of atoms.
للفيزياء الحرارية أهمية كبيرة في فهم العالم الذي نعيش فيه، إذ إن لكل جسم من حولنا هويته الحرارية الخاصة به التي تمنحه خواص فيزيائية مختلفة. إن كتاب (الفيزياء الحرارية) وضع ليوضح علاقة حرارة المواد بما حولها، ويجيب عن كثير من الأسئلة التي يمكن أن تخطر ببالنا. وينقسم كتاب (الفيزياء الحرارية) إلى أربعة أقسام رئيسة، حيث يناقش القسم الأول الأساسيات من مثل القانونين الأول والثاني، والطاقة في الفيزياء الحرارية والتفاعلات والدلالات كالبارامغناطيسية والاتزان الميكانيكي والضغط واتزان وانتشار الجهد الميكانيكي، ويتمحور القسم الثاني حول الثرموديناميكا، والمكائن الحرارية والثلاجات ومكائن الاحتراق الداخلي والماكينة البخارية والطاقة الحرة وتحولاتها. القسم الثالث والأخير من الكتاب يتناول ميكانيكا الإحصاء، كإحصاء بولتزمان والإحصاء الكمّي، وأنظمة الجسيمات المتفاعلة. ويختتم الكتاب بملحقين: الأول عن عناصر ميكانيكا الكمّ والثاني عن النتائج الرياضية. الكتاب يحتوي على تطبيقات في مجالات متعددة، كالكيمياء والجيولوجيا وعلوم الحياة وعلوم البيئة وعلم التعدين وفيزياء الجوامد وفيزياء الفلك، وغيرها مما يساعد على استيعاب أكبر لمفاهيم الفيزياء الحرارية وأسسها. العبيكان للنشر
For the last few years astrophysicists and elementary particle physicists have been working jointly on the following fascinating phenomena: 1. The solar neutrino puzzle and the question: What happens to the neutrinos on their way from the sun to the earth? 2. The growing evidence that our universe is filled with about 10 times more matter than is visible and the question: What is dark matter made of? 3. The supernovae explosions and the question: What do neutrinos tell us about such explosions and vice versa? The experimental investigation of these phenomena is difficult and involves unconventional techniques. These are presently under development, and bring together such seemingly disparate disciplines as astrophysics and elementary particle physics on the one hand and superconductivity and solid-state physics on the other. This book contains the proceedings of a workshop held in March 1987 at which the above subjects and their experimental investigation were discussed. The proposed experimental methods are very new. They involve frontier developments in low temperature and solid-state physics. The book should be useful to researchers and students who actively work on these subjects or plan to enter the field. It also offers the non-expert reader with some physics background a good survey of the activities in this field.
This book reviews recent developments of quantum Monte Carlo methods and some remarkable applications to interacting quantum spin systems and strongly correlated electron systems. It contains twenty-two papers by thirty authors. Some of the features are as follows. The first paper gives the foundations of the standard quantum Monte Carlo method, including some recent results on higher-order decompositions of exponential operators and ordered exponentials. The second paper presents a general review of quantum Monte Carlo methods used in the present book. One of the most challenging problems in the field of quantum Monte Carlo techniques, the negative-sign problem, is also discussed and new methods proposed to partially overcome it. In addition, low-dimensional quantum spin systems are studied. Some interesting applications of quantum Monte Carlo methods to fermion systems are also presented to investigate the role of strong correlations and fluctuations of electrons and to clarify the mechanism of high-c superconductivity. Not only thermal properties but also quantum-mechanical ground-state properties have been studied by the projection technique using auxiliary fields. Further, the Haldane gap is confirmed by numerical calculations. Active researchers in the forefront of condensed matter physics as well as young graduate students who want to start learning the quantum Monte Carlo methods will find this book useful.

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