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This book brings together historic urban / building rules and codes for the geographic areas including Greece, Italy and Spain. The author achieved his ambitious goal of finding pertinent rules and codes that were followed in previous societies for the processes that formed the built environment of their towns and cities, including building activities at the neighborhood level and the decision-making process that took place between proximate neighbors. The original languages of the texts that were translated into English are Greek, Latin, Italian, Arabic and Spanish. The sources for the chapter on Greece date from the 2nd century B.C.E. to the 19th century C.E. Those for the chapter on Italy date from the 10th to the 14th centuries C.E. and for the chapter on Spain from the 5th to the 18th centuries C.E. Numerous appendices are included to enhance and elaborate on the material that make up the chapters. This book provides lessons and insights into how compact and sustainable towns and cities that are greatly admired today were achieved in the past and how we and future generations can learn from this rich heritage, including the valuable insight provided by the nature of the rules and codes and their application through centuries of continuous use.
Darlene L. Brooks Hedstrom offers a new history of the field of Egyptian monastic archaeology. It is the first study in English to trace how scholars identified a space or site as monastic within the Egyptian landscape and how such identifications impacted perceptions of monasticism. Brooks Hedstrom then provides an ecohistory of Egypt's tripartite landscape to offer a reorientation of the perception of the physical landscape. She analyzes late-antique documentary evidence, early monastic literature, and ecclesiastical history before turning to the extensive archaeological evidence of Christian monastic settlements. In doing so, she illustrates the stark differences between idealized monastic landscape and the actual monastic landscape that was urbanized through monastic constructions. Drawing upon critical theories in landscape studies, materiality and phenomenology, Brooks Hedstrom looks at domestic settlements of non-monastic and monastic settlements to posit what features makes monastic settlements unique, thus offering a new history of monasticism in Egypt.
This book is for the well-meaning idealists – city planners, urban designers, municipalities, and developers – who are frustrated working within the messy political environments of local democracies. It provides practical tools for crafting form-based rules that can facilitate effective communication and consensus building that are essential in today’s many regulatory cultures. It reviews some of the recent form-based codes and focuses on a lot-types approach to coding. It applies this approach to designing for the climate; it demonstrates that this approach can be used in deciphering the climatic responses of vernacular archetypes that have been evolved through generations, and then coding them via simple coding tools. This book’s purpose is twofold: (a) to provide a theoretical framework that clarifies why working within dynamic legal systems in local democracies is a necessity today for practitioners of urban planning and design, and how crafting dynamic rules may facilitate effective communication which is crucial within these cultures; and (b) to provide simple tools for crafting dynamic rules in form-based codes that can not only facilitate form-based consensus, but also address issues of sustainability and response to the climatic properties.
First published in 1989. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.
Istanbul: Informal Settlements and Generative Urbanism analyzes two informal housing settlements in Istanbul, Turkey – Karanfilköy and Fatih Sultan Mehmet – to examine how generatively built structures and neighbourhoods can be successfully realized in a modern, burgeoning urban context. Generative development processes adapt to existing conditions and unfold over time, but there have been relatively few examples in the 20th and 21st centuries. This book evaluates the constructs of living structures, pattern languages and generative urban design processes in relation to Istanbul’s informal settlements. It provides examples of communities making liveable, dynamic and user-adapted neighbourhoods and establishes them as a modern settlement typology in generative urban design theory.
The experience developed by Ian McHarg represents the first attempt to base environmental planning on more objective methods. In particular, he supposed that the real world can be considered as a layer cake and each layer represents a sectoral analysis. This metaphor represents the fundamental of overlay mapping. At the beginning, these principles have been applied only by hand, just considering the degree of darkness, produced by layer transparency, as a negative impact. In the following years, this craftmade approach, has been adopted for data organization in Geographical Information Systems producing analyses with a high level of quality and rigour. Nowadays, great part of studies in environmental planning field have been developed using GIS. The next step relative to the simple use of geographic information in supporting environmental planning is the adoption of spatial simulation models, which can predict the evolution of phenomena. As the use of spatial information has definitely improved the quality of data sets on which basing decision-making process, the use of Geostatistics, spatial simulation and, more generally, geocomputation methods allows the possibility of basing the decision-making process on predicted future scenarios. It is very strange that a discipline such as planning which programs the territory for the future years in great part of cases is not based on simulation models. Sectoral analyses, often based on surveys, are not enough to highlight dynamics of an area. Better knowing urban and environmental changes occurred in the past, it is possible to provide better simulations to predict possible tendencies. The aim of this book is to provide an overview of the main methods and techniques adopted in the field of environmental geocomputation in order to produce a more sustainable development.
Urban Geomorphology: Landforms and Processes in Cities addresses the human impacts on landscapes through occupation (urbanization) and development as a contribution to anthropogenic geomorphology or "anthropogeomorphology." This includes a focus on land clearance, conservation issues, pollution, decay and erosion, urban climate, and anthropogenic climate change. These topics, as well as others, are considered to shed more light on the human transformation of natural landscapes and the environmental impacts and geomorphological hazards that environmental change can encompass. Its multidisciplinary approach is appropriate for audiences from a range of disciplines and professions, from geologists, conservationists, and land-use planners to architects and developers. Urban Geomorphology not only transcends disciplines, but also covers varied spatial-temporal frameworks and presents a diverse set of approaches and solutions to human impacts and geomorphological hazards within urban landscapes. Features a cross-disciplinary perspective, highlighting the importance of the geosciences to environmental science, engineering, and public policy Focuses on the built environment as the location of concentrated human impacts and change Provides an international scope, including case studies from urban areas around the world

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