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This book examines the legacy of Lebanon’s civil war and how the population, and the youth in particular, are dealing with their national past. Drawing on extensive qualitative research and social observation, the author explores the efforts of those who wish to remember, so as not to repeat past mistakes, and those who wish to forget. In considering how the Lebanese youth are negotiating this collective memory, Larkin addresses issues of: Lebanese post-war amnesia and the gradual emergence of new memory discourses and public debates Lebanese nationalism and historical memory visual memory and mnemonic landscapes oral memory and post-war narratives war memory as an agent of ethnic conflict and a tool for reconciliation and peace-building. trans-generational trauma or postmemory. Shedding new light on trauma and the persistence of ethnic and religious hostility, this book offers a unique insight into Lebanon’s recurring communal tensions and a fresh perspective on the issue of war memory. As such, this is an essential addition to the existing literature on Lebanon and will be relevant for scholars of sociology, Middle East studies, anthropology, politics and history.
The Iraqi Disputed Territories consist of 15 districts stretching across four northern governorates. While an administrative solution for the disputed territories remains evasive, minority groups across the region have been pulled into a clash over demographic composition as each disputed district faces ethnically defined claims. Meanwhile, inter-ethnic communal tensions are rising and questions of identity increasingly overshadow day-to-day life. There has been little research on the impact of heightened identity politics on the everyday lives of citizens. Regardless of the final administrative outcome, the multi-ethnic population of the region requires services and systems of co-existence, and in the fragile ethno-political environment of the disputed territories, the way in which the education system manages ethnic diversity is crucial. It is within this context that Education and Ethno-Politics examines the development of education systems across the region post 2003. Drawing on over 50 interviews with regional education officials and community representatives, the book presents the impact of amplified ethno-politics on the reconstruction of education in Iraq. It provides the first academic exploration into education in the region, exploring the significance of cultural reproduction and the link between demands for ethnically specific education, societal security and the wider political contestation over the territory. A comprehensive analysis of the powerful role of education in identity-based conflicts, this book offers a highly insightful examination of Iraq’s past and present, as well as formulating policy recommendations for its future. It is an essential resource for students, scholars and policy makers with focus on the Middle East, specifically Iraqi and Kurdish studies, as well as those interested in Education policy and Conflict studies.
Due to its primacy in explaining issues of war and peace in the international arena, the discipline of International Relations (IR) looms large in analyses of and responses to ethnic conflict in academia, politics and popular media – in particular with respect to contemporary conflicts in the Middle East. Grounded in constitutive theory, this book challenges how ethnic/ethno-nationalist conflict is represented in explanatory IR by deconstructing its most prominent state-centric models, frameworks and analytical concepts. As much a critique of contemporary scholarship on Kurdish ethno-nationalism as a detailed analysis of the most prominent Kurdish ethno-nationalist actors, the book provides the first in-depth investigation into the relations between the PKK and the main Iraqi Kurdish political parties from the 1980s to the present. It situates this inquiry within the wider context of the ambiguous political status of the Kurdistan Region of Iraq, its relations with Turkey, and the role Kurdish parties and insurgencies play in the war against ISIS in Iraq and Syria. Appreciating these complex dynamics and how they are portrayed in Western scholarship is essential for understanding current developments in the Iraqi and Syrian theatres of war, and for making sense of discussions about a potential independent Kurdish state to emerge in Iraq. Iraqi Kurdistan provides a comprehensive and critical discussion of the state-centric and essentialising epistemologies, ontologies, and methodologies of the three main paradigms of explanatory IR, as well as their analytical models and frameworks on ethnic identity and conflict in the Middle East and beyond. It will therefore be a valuable resource for anyone studying ethnicity and nationalism, International Relations or Middle East Politics.
Ethnic inequalities in divided societies can exacerbate social divisions and lead to conflict. Reducing these inequalities could have a de-escalating effect, yet there is little consensus on how this can be achieved most effectively and sustainably. Decentralisation is held to improve inter-ethnic relations in multi-ethnic states by allowing territorially concentrated groups greater autonomy over their own affairs, and the case of the Republic of Macedonia offers an example of the successes and failings of decentralisation. Decentralisation and the Management of Ethnic Conflict offers new insight into the dynamics of conflict management through decentralisation, using an in-depth case study of decentralisation in the Republic of Macedonia between 2005 and 2012. Guided by the concept of horizontal inequalities, the volume identifies the factors which influenced the decision to devolve responsibilities to the municipalities after 2001.Taking an integrative approach to studying the political, administrative, and fiscal dimensions of decentralisation and its implementation, the book investigates whether these institutional reforms have indeed contributed to the reduction of inequalities between Macedonia’s ethnic groups, and what the obstacles were in those areas in which decentralisation has not reached its full potential. The key lesson of the Macedonian case is that attempts to solve internal self-determination conflicts through decentralisation will fail if local self-governance exists only in form but not in substance. This book contributes to a more nuanced understanding of the challenges facing different forms of decentralisation in the long term, and as such represents a significant contribution to Conflict Studies, Development Studies and Political Science more generally.
Was bedeutet es wirklich, ein Flüchtling zu sein, durch den Krieg frühzeitig erwachsen werden zu müssen, die geliebte Heimat hinter sich zu lassen und vom Wohlwollen anderer abhängig zu sein? Die junge Syrerin Nujeen erzählt, wie der syrische Krieg eine stolze Nation zerstört, Familien auseinander reißt und Menschen zur Flucht zwingt. In Nujeens Fall zu einer Reise durch neun Länder, in einem Rollstuhl. Doch es ist auch die Geschichte einer willensstarken jungen Frau, die in Aleppo durch eine Krankheit ans Haus gefesselt ist und sich mit amerikanischen Seifenopern Englisch beibringt, weil sie die große Hoffnung auf ein besseres Leben hat. Eine Hoffnung, die sich fern der Heimat in Deutschland erfüllen kann. »Ein unglaubliche tapferes Mädchen. Nujeen, ich bin stolz auf dich!« Bear Grylls »Außergewöhnlich! Die Angst, die Erschöpfung und die Niedergeschlagenheit sind auf jeder Seite greifbar.« The Times

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