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The Japanese Army committed numerous atrocities during its pitiless campaigns in China from 1931 to 1945. Focusing on the trials of Japanese war criminals, Barak Kushner analyzes the political maneuvering and propagandizing in both China and Japan that would roil East Asian relations throughout the Cold War, with repercussions still felt today.
This innovative volume examines the nexus between war crimes trials and the pursuit of collaborators in post-war Asia. Global standards of behaviour in time of war underpinned the prosecution of Japanese military personnel in Allied courts in Asia and the Pacific. Japan’s contradictory roles in the Second World War as brutal oppressor of conquered regions in Asia and as liberator of Asia from both Western colonialism and stultifying tradition set the stage for a tangled legal and political debate: just where did colonized and oppressed peoples owe their loyalties in time of war? And where did the balance of responsibility lie between individuals and nations? But global standards jostled uneasily with the pluralism of the Western colonial order in Asia, where legal rights depended on race and nationality. In the end, these limits led to profound dissatisfaction with the trials process, despite its vast scale and ambitious intentions, which has implications until today.
Beginning in late 1945, the United States, Britain, China, Australia, France, the Netherlands, and later the Philippines, the Soviet Union, and the People's Republic of China convened national courts to prosecute Japanese military personnel for war crimes. The defendants included ethnic Koreans and Taiwanese who had served with the armed forces as Japanese subjects. In Tokyo, the International Military Tribunal for the Far East tried Japanese leaders. While the fairness of these trials has been a focus for decades, Japanese War Criminals instead argues that the most important issues arose outside the courtroom. What was the legal basis for identifying and detaining subjects, determining who should be prosecuted, collecting evidence, and granting clemency after conviction? The answers to these questions helped set the norms for transitional justice in the postwar era and today contribute to strategies for addressing problematic areas of international law. Examining the complex moral, ethical, legal, and political issues surrounding the Allied prosecution project, from the first investigations during the war to the final release of prisoners in 1958, Japanese War Criminals shows how a simple effort to punish the guilty evolved into a multidimensional struggle that muddied the assignment of criminal responsibility for war crimes. Over time, indignation in Japan over Allied military actions, particularly the deployment of the atomic bombs, eclipsed anger over Japanese atrocities, and, among the Western powers, new Cold War imperatives took hold. This book makes a unique contribution to our understanding of the construction of the postwar international order in Asia and to our comprehension of the difficulties of implementing transitional justice.
The Tokyo Tribunal (1946-1948) tried Japanese leaders for war crimes committed during the Second World War, but behind the scenes, old legal traditions contended with new legal ethics and refigured cultural perceptions of how to bringing about justice.
ينادي الناقد الإنجليزي الرومانسي وليم هازلت بالقراءة بمتعة؛ فالقراءة الجيدة تحتاج إلى شهية، والنصيحة الأساسية لكم دائمًا هي أن تكونوا شغوفين بالكلمة المكتوبة، والحفاظ على حس الدعابة لديكم؛ يجب ألَّا تكون القراءة عملًا شاقًا، ولا مجرد هروب أيضًا؛ ولكنْ صورة من صور الحياة تعاش بنغمة أعلى، وإذا ما نفذت بالطريقة المناسبة، فإنها تقدم لك مزيدًا من الحياة، ومزيدًا من الناس الذين لا يمكنك مقابلتهم في الحياة الواقعية، وإن الطاقة غير المحدودة للكلمات، تمنحك الدهشة، وهي أغلى الهدايا على الإطلاق، وهي دائمًا مفتوحة لك، في كل لحظة، فالكتب بانتظارك. إن الغوص في أغوار كتاب بحيث تستغرق فيه وتندمج وتهجر محيطك بسعادة، يتطلب بعض التحضيرات؛ فلكي تتمتع عليك معرفة ما تبحث عنه؛ وهدف القراءة المتأنية في عصر السرعة هو الأخذ بيدك نحو تحقيق متعة أكبر في القراءة من خلال بعض القواعد البسيطة، وبعض النقاشات الثرية للكتب المفضلة. إن الكيفية التي تقرأ بها أكثر أهمية بكثير من الكم الذي تقرؤه؛ فالكتاب الجيد هو الشيء الوحيد الذي سيعلمك كيفية القراءة بانتباه كامل، والتركيز على المتعة والفائدة العقلية؛ لأن المقالات الصحفية والتغريدات والمدونات لن تريك ما تدور القراءة حوله؛ الكتاب وحده هو الذي يمكنه فعل ذلك. إن القراءة بصورة أفضل تعني القراءة بصورة أكثر أناة، وثمة سبب وجيه للتأني؛ فكما أنه يوجد الطبخ المتأني، والتفكير المتأني، فبالتأكيد توجد القراءة المتأنية. العبيكان 2017
The end of Japan’s empire appeared to happen very suddenly and cleanly – but, as this book shows, it was in fact very messy, with a long period of establishing or re-establishing the postwar order. Moreover, as the authors argue, empires have afterlives, which, in the case of Japan’s empire, is not much studied. This book considers the details of deimperialization, including the repatriation of Japanese personnel, the redrawing of boundaries, issues to do with prisoners of war and war criminals and new arrangements for democratic political institutions, for media and for the regulation of trade. It also discusses the continuing impact of empire on the countries ruled or occupied by Japan, where, as a result of Japanese management and administration, both formal and informal, patterns of behavior and attitudes were established that continued subsequently. This was true in Japan itself, where returning imperial personnel had to be absorbed and adjustments made to imperial thinking, and in present-day East Asia, where the shadow of Japan’s empire still lingers. This legacy of unresolved issues concerning the correct relationship of Japan, an important, energetic, outgoing nation and a potential regional "hub," with the rest of the region not comfortably settled in this era, remains a fulcrum of regional dispute.

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