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The main objective of this work is to provide a book with high quality content that becomes a reference and support for graduate course (Mental Health, Public Health and Epidemiology) and for research in the domain of health economics applied to mental health. Also this book might be useful for policymakers on formulating mental health policies. Key messages of this book are based on: a) mental illness represent a huge cost for society and for health care; b) health economics applied to mental health could help in the optimization of resource allocation for mental health care and for better decision making in terms of balancing costs and benefits; c) interventions and treatment should be also chosen in general medical practice and in public decision-policy according to cost-effectiveness, burden of disease and equity principles; d) quality of care is related with better outcomes, higher quality of life for clients, and with lower costs for society and health system (best value for money); e) it is possible to decrease the burden of mental disorders with cost-effective treatments. The book is divided in four main topics: 1. Introduction to Health Economics applied to Mental Health – this section is an overview of basic principles, concepts and methods used in Economics and Health Economics to enable students to make critical appraisal of Health Economics texts and also to design research studies in this topic. 2. Health Economics applied to the evaluation of quality and costs of Mental Health Services – this section presents results of Brazilian studies on the costs of mental health care (hospital, outpatient care, residential care, informal care), methods on the measurement of costs and it discusses issues related with public policies decisions and quality of mental health car in the low and middle income countries context. There is also an overview of quality indicators of mental health care and instruments to evaluate mental health services and costs.3. Health Economics applied to evaluate treatment of mental disorders - This section presents a review of cost-effectiveness of pharmacological treatments and other interventions applied for treating the most burdensome mental disorders such as depressive and anxiety disorders, bipolar disorders, psychosis, alcohol and drug disorders, dementia, and hyper attention deficit disorders. 4. Health Economics, burden and indirect costs of mental disorders - This section highlights the social and economic burden caused by mental illness under societal perspective focusing on stigma, unemployment, indirect costs in the workplace (absenteeism and presenteeism), the relationship between poverty and mental disorders, global health and social determinants of mental health and on the costs of mental disorders (depression, anxiety, psychosis, alcohol and drug disorders). We present some instruments to measure indirect costs of mental disorders.
Mental, neurological, and substance use disorders are common, highly disabling, and associated with significant premature mortality. The impact of these disorders on the social and economic well-being of individuals, families, and societies is large, growing, and underestimated. Despite this burden, these disorders have been systematically neglected, particularly in low- and middle-income countries, with pitifully small contributions to scaling up cost-effective prevention and treatment strategies. Systematically compiling the substantial existing knowledge to address this inequity is the central goal of this volume. This evidence-base can help policy makers in resource-constrained settings as they prioritize programs and interventions to address these disorders.
This book addresses the high cost of mental illness, the organisation of care, changes and future directions for the mental health workforce, indicators for mental health care and quality, and tools for better governance of the system.
Each year, more than 33 million Americans receive health care for mental or substance-use conditions, or both. Together, mental and substance-use illnesses are the leading cause of death and disability for women, the highest for men ages 15-44, and the second highest for all men. Effective treatments exist, but services are frequently fragmented and, as with general health care, there are barriers that prevent many from receiving these treatments as designed or at all. The consequences of this are seriousâ€"for these individuals and their families; their employers and the workforce; for the nation’s economy; as well as the education, welfare, and justice systems. Improving the Quality of Health Care for Mental and Substance-Use Conditions examines the distinctive characteristics of health care for mental and substance-use conditions, including payment, benefit coverage, and regulatory issues, as well as health care organization and delivery issues. This new volume in the Quality Chasm series puts forth an agenda for improving the quality of this care based on this analysis. Patients and their families, primary health care providers, specialty mental health and substance-use treatment providers, health care organizations, health plans, purchasers of group health care, and all involved in health care for mental and substanceâ€"use conditions will benefit from this guide to achieving better care.
Mental illness is a leading cause of suffering in the modern world. In sheer numbers, it afflicts at least 20 percent of people in developed countries. It reduces life expectancy as much as smoking does, accounts for nearly half of all disability claims, is behind half of all worker sick days, and affects educational achievement and income. There are effective tools for alleviating mental illness, but most sufferers remain untreated or undertreated. What should be done to change this? In Thrive, Richard Layard and David Clark argue for fresh policy approaches to how we think about and deal with mental illness, and they explore effective solutions to its miseries and injustices. Layard and Clark show that modern psychological therapies are highly effective and could potentially turn around the lives of millions of people at little or no cost. This is because treating psychological problems generates huge savings on physical health care, as well as massive economic savings through more people working. So psychological therapies would effectively pay for themselves, generating potential savings for nations the world over. Layard and Clark describe how various successful psychological treatments have been developed and explain what works best for whom. They also discuss how mental illness can be prevented through better schools and a better society, and the urgency of doing so. Illustrating why we cannot afford to ignore the issue of mental illness, Thrive opens the door to new options and possibilities for one of the most serious problems facing us today.
This international survey defines mental health as a basic human right, and tracks the emergence of mental health prevention and promotion as a global priority. Locating mental illness within a cycle of negative causes and effects affecting human quality of life, the editors identify modern policy barriers to promotion/prevention initiatives, particularly the favoring of the biomedical health model by major stakeholders. The book’s selection of successful programs from diverse countries displays a lifespan approach, emphasizing the centrality of interdisciplinary educational settings in providing primary and secondary prevention and promotion interventions, and the ongoing fight against missing financial investigations, discrimination and stigma. Together, these papers make a forceful argument for rights- based responses to worldwide mental health needs as part of the commitment toward global human rights and long-term development goals. Included in the coverage: · Mental health priorities around the world. · Social determinants of mental health. · Mental health and stigma: aspects of anti-stigma interventions. · Promoting social and emotional wellbeing and responding to mental health problems in schools. · The promotion and delivery of mental health services in primary care settings. · Economic evaluation of mental health promotion and mental illness prevention. Bringing to the fore public health concerns that are too often marginalized, Global Mental Health is necessary reading for health professionals, health and clinical psychologists, psychiatrists, medical sociologists, and policymakers.
The aim of this book is to provide a comprehensive review of the use of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) in different psychiatric conditions. Here we review tDCS clinical studies employing different types of design (from single-session tDCS studies to randomized clinical trials) as well as studies evaluating the impact of tDCS in neurophysiological, behavioral and brain imaging outcomes. Although the understanding about physiological foundations and effectiveness of clinical therapies of psychiatric diseases has been considerably increased during the last decades, our knowledge is still limited, and consequently psychiatric diseases are still a major burden to the individual patient and society. Recently, interest in pathological alterations of neuroplasticity in psychiatric diseases as a critical condition for development, and amelioration of clinical symptoms increased, caused by the fact that new tools, such as functional imaging, and brain stimulation techniques do allow to monitor, and modulate these phenomena in humans. Especially non-invasive brain stimulation techniques evolved as an attractive potential new therapeutic tool. The interest in non-invasive brain stimulation has grown exponentially in the past 25 years, with the development of non-pharmacological, neuromodulatory techniques such as tDCS and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). TDCS, although even newer than rTMS, has attracted considerable attention in both basic and clinical research scenarios. In the context of clinical research, tDCS is being increasingly investigated as a novel treatment tool for several psychiatric disorders, such as major depression, schizophrenia and neurocognitive and substance abuse disorders. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation in Neuropsychiatric Disorders – Clinical Principles and Management intends to serve as a practical guide on the field, attracting the interest of psychiatrists, neurologists and neuroscientists with little or no experience with tDCS, as well as those with a background on tDCS who want to increase their knowledge in any particular psychiatric condition.

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