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This is the first part of a textbook for students of sociology, and for those students of other social sciences who wish to make use in their work of the research methods elaborated in the course of the develop ment of empirical sociology over the last few decades. The development of empirical sociological research in our country and the growing demand both for a practical application of its results and for graduates of sociological studies in various fields of social practice testifies to a much broader trend. It is evidence of a desire to base our understanding and conscious transformation of social phenom ena on a sound, scientific perception of social processes and the mechanisms governing them. The increasing volume of studies in Poland is accompanied by a growing need for a particular type of re search method, namely one in which questions addressed to the socio logist would be answered in a manner as free as possible of conclusions based on impressions and defining as unambiguously as possible both the limits of the generality and the degree of validity of the inferences drawn from the results of the research. These conditions are met by the so-called standardized methods of investigating social phenomena which, together with statistical methods of analyzing collected material, consti tute the principal means of conducting sociological research in the world today.
Abductive Reasoning: Logical Investigations into Discovery and Explanation is a much awaited original contribution to the study of abductive reasoning, providing logical foundations and a rich sample of pertinent applications. Divided into three parts on the conceptual framework, the logical foundations, and the applications, this monograph takes the reader for a comprehensive and erudite tour through the taxonomy of abductive reasoning, via the logical workings of abductive inference ending with applications pertinent to scientific explanation, empirical progress, pragmatism and belief revision.
This is the second of two volumes containing papers submitted by the invited speakers to the 11th international Congress of Logic, Methodology and Philosophy of Science, held in Cracow in 1999, under the auspices of the International Union of History and Philosophy of Science, Division of Logic, Methodology and Philosophy of Science. The invited speakers are the leading researchers and accordingly the book presents the current state of the intellectual discourse in the respective fields. The papers delivered at the congress were divided into 17 sections. Thus the structure of the volume corresponds to the very schedule of the congress. Volume two contains the closing lecture by John Maynard Smith and the invited papers in sections of Philosophy of the Biological Sciences, Philosophy of Cognitive Science and Artificial Intelligence, Philosophy of Linguistics, Philosophy of the Social Sciences, Ethics of Science and Technology, History of Logic, Methodology, and Philosophy of Science, Philosophical Questions Raised by the History and Sociology of Science. It also contains invited papers in two special symposia: A Hundred Years of the Philosophy of Science and Cognitive Science Meets Philosophy of Science, as well as a special lecture delivered by Stanislaw Lem. We hope that the book could be of interest to philosophers, biologists, linguists, cognitive scientists, social scientists, sociologists, as well as historians and philosophers of science.
(Over)Interpreting Wittgenstein will be read by philosophers investigating Wittgenstein and by scholars, interpreters, students, and specialists, in both analytic and continental philosophy. It will intrigue readers interested in issues of interpretation and cultural studies. This book tells the story - as yet untold - of Wittgenstein interpretation during the past eighty years. It provides different interpretations, chronologies, developments, and controversies. It aims to discover the (socio-cultural rather than psychological) motives and motivations behind the philosophical community's project of interpreting Wittgenstein. As a cultural history of ideas, it traces the parallelism between Wittgenstein interpretation and the move from metaphysics, to language, to postmodernism effected in the twentieth century.
Modern mathematical logic would not exist without the analytical tools first developed by George Boole in The Mathematical Analysis of Logic and The Laws of Thought. The influence of the Boolean school on the development of logic, always recognised but long underestimated, has recently become a major research topic. This collection is the first anthology of works on Boole. It contains two works published in 1865, the year of Boole's death, but never reprinted, as well as several classic studies of recent decades and ten original contributions appearing here for the first time. From the programme of the English Algebraic School to Boole's use of operator methods, from the problem of interpretability to that of psychologism, a full range of issues is covered. The Boole Anthology is indispensable to Boole studies and will remain so for years to come.

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