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Mathematical models are being increasingly used to estimate the concentrations of a wide range of substances in the environment for a variety of reasons, including government control and legislation, and risk and hazard estimation. Exposure assessment has to be performed for many types of substances, including pesticides, industrial chemicals, pollutants, accidental discharges, etc. The interpretation of the results of model equations should always bear in mind the purpose for which the model used was built in the first place. Further, models are always an abstraction of reality, requiring simplifying assumptions to keep the models within the restraints posed by computer performance and/or scientific knowledge. The present book treats the theme of modelling chemical exposure and risk in terms of four main topics: model characteristics, applications, comparison of estimated with measured concentrations, and modelling credibility.
The book contains the contributions at the NATO Study Institute on Exposure and Risk Assessment of Chemical Pollution – Contemporary Methodology, which took place in Sofia – Borovetz, Bulgaria, July 1–10, 2008. Rapid advances in mathematics, computer science and molecular biology and chemistry have lead to the development in of a new branch of toxicology called Computational Toxicology. This emerging field is addressing the estimation and prediction of exposure risk and effects of chemicals based on experimental data, measured concentration and biological mechanisms and computational models of biological systems. Mathematical models are also being used to predict the fate and transport of substances in the environment. Because this area is still in its infancy, there has been limited application from governmental agencies to regulating controllable processes, such as registration of new chemicals, determination of estimated exposure and risk based limits and maximum acceptable concentrations in different compartments of the environment – ambient air, waters, soil and food products. However, this is soon to change as the ability to collect, analyze and interpret the required information is becoming increasingly more efficient and cost effective. Full implementation of the new processes have to involve education on both part of the experimentalists who are generating the data and the models, and the risk assessors who will use them to better protect human health and the environment.
The Handbook of Pesticide Toxicology is a comprehensive, two-volume reference guide to the properties, effects, and regulation of pesticides that provides the latest and most complete information to researchers investigating the environmental, agricultural, veterinary, and human-health impacts of pesticide use. Written by international experts from academia, government, and the private sector, the Handbook of Pesticide Toxicology is an in-depth examination of critical issues related to the need for, use of, and nature of chemicals used in modern pest management. This updated third edition carries on the book's tradition of serving as the definitive reference on pesticide toxicology and recognizies the seminal contribution of Wayland J. Hayes, Jr., co-Editor of the first edition. Feature: Presents a comprehensive look at all aspects of pesticide toxicology in one reference work. Benefit: Saves researchers time in quickly accessing the very latest definitive details on toxicity of specific pesticides as opposed to searching through thousands of journal articles. Feature: Clear exposition of hazard identification and dose response relationships in each chapter featuring pesticide agents and actions Benefit: Connects the experimental laboratory results to real-life applications in human health, animal health and the environment. Feature: All major classes of pesticide considered. Benefit: Provides relevance to a wider variety of researchers who are conducting comparative work in pesticides or their health impacts. Feature: Different routes of exposure critically evaluated. Benefit: Connects the loop between exposure and harmful affects to those who are researching the affects of pesticides on humans or wildlife.
Oxides and acids of nitrogen play an important role in regulating atmospheric radical levels, in particular, that of the OH radical the main initiator of the degradation of chemicals in the atmosphere. A comprehensive overview on the methods used to measure nitrogen oxides and acids in the troposphere is given and difficulties and artefacts associated with the use of the techniques for measurements in urban and mega city environments is illustrated. State-of-the-art methods for the measurement of OH and HO2 radicals are reviewed and recently recognised difficulties, in particular with the measurement of HO2 radicals, are highlighted. Other contributions to the book cover our present understanding of the gas, aqueous and particulate/aerosol phase atmospheric degradation chemistry of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) under NOx conditions typical of rural, urban and mega city environments. Examples of measurements of NOx and VOCs in the atmospheres of these environments are given, in particular for the megacities Cairo and Beijing, in conjunction with modelling studies which attempt to simulate the field observations using state-of-the art knowledge on the chemistry of the VOCs and radical levels.

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