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Offers a comprehensive overview of NAND flash memories, with insights into NAND history, technology, challenges, evolutions, and perspectives Describes new program disturb issues, data retention, power consumption, and possible solutions for the challenges of 3D NAND flash memory Written by an authority in NAND flash memory technology, with over 25 years’ experience
Presented here is an all-inclusive treatment of Flash technology, including Flash memory chips, Flash embedded in logic, binary cell Flash, and multilevel cell Flash. The book begins with a tutorial of elementary concepts to orient readers who are less familiar with the subject. Next, it covers all aspects and variations of Flash technology at a mature engineering level: basic device structures, principles of operation, related process technologies, circuit design, overall design tradeoffs, device testing, reliability, and applications.
This book walks the reader through the next step in the evolution of NAND flash memory technology, namely the development of 3D flash memories, in which multiple layers of memory cells are grown within the same piece of silicon. It describes their working principles, device architectures, fabrication techniques and practical implementations, and highlights why 3D flash is a brand new technology. After reviewing market trends for both NAND and solid state drives (SSDs), the book digs into the details of the flash memory cell itself, covering both floating gate and emerging charge trap technologies. There is a plethora of different materials and vertical integration schemes out there. New memory cells, new materials, new architectures (3D Stacked, BiCS and P-BiCS, 3D FG, 3D VG, 3D advanced architectures); basically, each NAND manufacturer has its own solution. Chapter 3 to chapter 7 offer a broad overview of how 3D can materialize. The 3D wave is impacting emerging memories as well and chapter 8 covers 3D RRAM (resistive RAM) crosspoint arrays. Visualizing 3D structures can be a challenge for the human brain: this is way all these chapters contain a lot of bird’s-eye views and cross sections along the 3 axes. The second part of the book is devoted to other important aspects, such as advanced packaging technology (i.e. TSV in chapter 9) and error correction codes, which have been leveraged to improve flash reliability for decades. Chapter 10 describes the evolution from legacy BCH to the most recent LDPC codes, while chapter 11 deals with some of the most recent advancements in the ECC field. Last but not least, chapter 12 looks at 3D flash memories from a system perspective. Is 14nm the last step for planar cells? Can 100 layers be integrated within the same piece of silicon? Is 4 bit/cell possible with 3D? Will 3D be reliable enough for enterprise and datacenter applications? These are some of the questions that this book helps answering by providing insights into 3D flash memory design, process technology and applications.
Solid State Drives (SSDs) are gaining momentum in enterprise and client applications, replacing Hard Disk Drives (HDDs) by offering higher performance and lower power. In the enterprise, developers of data center server and storage systems have seen CPU performance growing exponentially for the past two decades, while HDD performance has improved linearly for the same period. Additionally, multi-core CPU designs and virtualization have increased randomness of storage I/Os. These trends have shifted performance bottlenecks to enterprise storage systems. Business critical applications such as online transaction processing, financial data processing and database mining are increasingly limited by storage performance. In client applications, small mobile platforms are leaving little room for batteries while demanding long life out of them. Therefore, reducing both idle and active power consumption has become critical. Additionally, client storage systems are in need of significant performance improvement as well as supporting small robust form factors. Ultimately, client systems are optimizing for best performance/power ratio as well as performance/cost ratio. SSDs promise to address both enterprise and client storage requirements by drastically improving performance while at the same time reducing power. Inside Solid State Drives walks the reader through all the main topics related to SSDs: from NAND Flash to memory controller (hardware and software), from I/O interfaces (PCIe/SAS/SATA) to reliability, from error correction codes (BCH and LDPC) to encryption, from Flash signal processing to hybrid storage. We hope you enjoy this tour inside Solid State Drives.
Digital photography, MP3, digital video, etc. make extensive use of NAND-based Flash cards as storage media. To realize how much NAND Flash memories pervade every aspect of our life, just imagine how our recent habits would change if the NAND memories suddenly disappeared. To take a picture it would be necessary to find a film (as well as a traditional camera...), disks or even magnetic tapes would be used to record a video or to listen a song, and a cellular phone would return to be a simple mean of communication rather than a multimedia console. The development of NAND Flash memories will not be set down on the mere evolution of personal entertainment systems since a new killer application can trigger a further success: the replacement of Hard Disk Drives (HDDs) with Solid State Drives (SSDs). SSD is made up by a microcontroller and several NANDs. As NAND is the technology driver for IC circuits, Flash designers and technologists have to deal with a lot of challenges. Therefore, SSD (system) developers must understand Flash technology in order to exploit its benefits and countermeasure its weaknesses. Inside NAND Flash Memories is a comprehensive guide of the NAND world: from circuits design (analog and digital) to Flash reliability (including radiation effects), from testing issues to high-performance (DDR) interface, from error correction codes to NAND applications like Flash cards and SSDs.
The large scale integration and planar scaling of individual system chips is reaching an expensive limit. If individual chips now, and later terrabyte memory blocks, memory macros, and processing cores, can be tightly linked in optimally designed and processed small footprint vertical stacks, then performance can be increased, power reduced and cost contained. This book reviews for the electronics industry engineer, professional and student the critical areas of development for 3D vertical memory chips including: gate-all-around and junction-less nanowire memories, stacked thin film and double gate memories, terrabit vertical channel and vertical gate stacked NAND flash, large scale stacking of Resistance RAM cross-point arrays, and 2.5D/3D stacking of memory and processor chips with through-silicon-via connections now and remote links later. Key features: Presents a review of the status and trends in 3-dimensional vertical memory chip technologies. Extensively reviews advanced vertical memory chip technology and development Explores technology process routes and 3D chip integration in a single reference
A Flash memory is a Non Volatile Memory (NVM) whose "unit cells" are fabricated in CMOS technology and programmed and erased electrically. In 1971, Frohman-Bentchkowsky developed a folating polysilicon gate tran sistor [1, 2], in which hot electrons were injected in the floating gate and removed by either Ultra-Violet (UV) internal photoemission or by Fowler Nordheim tunneling. This is the "unit cell" of EPROM (Electrically Pro grammable Read Only Memory), which, consisting of a single transistor, can be very densely integrated. EPROM memories are electrically programmed and erased by UV exposure for 20-30 mins. In the late 1970s, there have been many efforts to develop an electrically erasable EPROM, which resulted in EEPROMs (Electrically Erasable Programmable ROMs). EEPROMs use hot electron tunneling for program and Fowler-Nordheim tunneling for erase. The EEPROM cell consists of two transistors and a tunnel oxide, thus it is two or three times the size of an EPROM. Successively, the combination of hot carrier programming and tunnel erase was rediscovered to achieve a single transistor EEPROM, called Flash EEPROM. The first cell based on this concept has been presented in 1979 [3]; the first commercial product, a 256K memory chip, has been presented by Toshiba in 1984 [4]. The market did not take off until this technology was proven to be reliable and manufacturable [5].

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