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This is the third book in a series presenting Nobel Prizes in the life sciences using the remarkably rich archives of nominations and reviews which are kept secret for 50 years after the awards have been made. The two previous books are Nobel Prizes and Life Sciences (2010) and Nobel Prizes and Nature's Surprises (2013). The present book discusses the prizes in physiology or medicine 1963–65. The 1963 prize recognized milestone discoveries in the field of neurosciences, the way electrical impulses are generated and spread in nerves. The impressive developments of insights into tantalizing brain functions, like consciousness and memory, is discussed in the perspective of prizes both before and after the 1963 prize. The prize in 1964 marked the advanced biochemical venture that led to a full understanding of the synthesis of cholesterol, a central molecule for providing flexibility of the membranes of the trillions of cell in our body. The importance of this molecule for the appearance of cardiovascular diseases and the possibilities to prevent them is presented in the light of other prizes earlier and later in this field. The 1965 prize recognized three impressive French intellectuals, Lwoff, Monod and Jacob. Their contributions allowed the full maturation of the initial phase of the emerging field of molecular biology. The comprehension of the information flow from DNA via RNA to proteins was the source of a revolution of life sciences and of medicine.
The Nobel Prizes m natural sciences have achieved the reputation of being the ultimate accolade for scientific achievements. This honk gives a unique insight into the selection of Nobel Prize recipients, in particular the life sciences. The evolving mechanisms of selection of prize recipients are illustrated by reference to archives, which have remained secret for 1) years. Many of the prizes subjected to particular evaluation concern awards given for discoveries in the field of infectious diseases and the interconnected field of genetics. The book illustrates the individuals and environments that are conducive to scientific creativity. Nowhere is this enigmatic activity'-- the mime mover in advancing the human condition highlighted as lucidly as by identification individuals worthy of Nobel Prizes. --Book Jacket.
Milestones in Immunology: Based on Collected Papers contains scientific milestones relating to the history of medicine over the past two centuries. The book highlights the contributions of pioneering scientists whose discoveries have paved the way for researchers working in the field of immunology. As the science of immunology grew from knowledge that survivors of common infectious diseases rarely contracted them again, the book uses this as a central thesis, helping readers understand how the adaptive immune system aids in defense against pathogens. In addition, the book covers special fields, such as immunohistochemistry, immunogenetics and immunopathology. For the past century, immunology has fascinated and inspired some of the greatest scientists of our time. Numerous Nobel Prizes have been awarded for fundamental discoveries in immunology, from Paul Ehrlich’ work on antibodies (1908) to the studies of Zinkernagel and Doherty (1986) elucidating mechanisms of cell-mediated immunity. Provides on update on developments since the publication of Nobel prize winning research for fundamental discoveries in immunology Discusses the changing theories and technologies that guided the field Lists all the important discoveries and books in the field Explains, in detail, the many Nobel prize-winning contributions of immunologists Provides recognition of the scientists who were pioneers of landmark discoveries in immunology
We often think of scientists as dispassionate and detached, nobly laboring without any expectation of reward. But scientific research is much more complicated and messy than this ideal, and scientists can be torn by jealousy, impelled by a need for recognition, and subject to human vulnerability and fallibility. In Prize Fight , Emeritus Chair at SUNY School of Medicine Morton Meyers pulls back the curtain to reveal the dark side of scientific discovery. From allegations of stolen authorship to fabricated results and elaborate hoaxes, he shows us how too often brilliant minds are reduced to petty jealousies and promising careers cut short by disputes over authorship or fudged data. Prize Fight is a dramatic look at some of the most notable discoveries in science in recent years, from the discovery of insulin, which led to decades of infighting and even violence, to why the 2003 Nobel Prize in Medicine exposed how often scientific objectivity is imperiled.
Each year the Nobel Prizes in the natural sciences reveal amazing discoveries. New milestones in the relentless advance of science are identified. The growth of knowledge and its evolution can be researched in the Nobel archives where nominations are kept secret for 50 years after the awards have been made. They represent a treasure for real-time assessment of science. Norrby's earlier book, Nobel Prizes and Life Sciences (2010) examined the unique archival records until 1959. The present book takes us up to 1962, surveying a range of dazzling discoveries. All prizes in immunology are reviewed. Their impact on our capacity to control infectious diseases and transplant organs are highlighted. The Nobel year 1962 is exceptional in recognizing the most major advance in biology since Darwin in 1859 presented his theory of evolution. This was the dramatic discovery of the double-helix structure of DNA by Watson and Crick in 1953. The era of molecular biology had begun. Its explosive development continues into the present. Contents:A Magician of Virology from AustraliaA Divided Nobel Prize and a New Era in ImmunologyMore Nobel Prizes in ImmunologyImmunity, Infections and TransplantationsTransgressing Borders in Science and Scenes of LifeMaking Sense of HearingUnraveling the Complexity of Protein Folding“It's So Beautiful, You See, So Beautiful”Coda Readership: General. Keywords:DNA;Nobel Prize;Life Science;Medical Disoveries;Molecular BiologyReviews: "This book describes and explains one of the most important discoveries of the 20th century. It is a seminal work, that scholars of the History of Science will use to be able to understand how science evolves. Young scientists will find this book a valuable resource." Sir Aaron Klug Nobel laureate in Chemistry, 1982 "Speculation about what happens in the selection of Nobel Prize winners is part of both the narrative and the ‘gossip’ of science. Interpreting what went on in the Nobel selection committees 50 years ago requires both an intimate understanding of how the process works and familiarity with subtleties of the Swedish language. Erling Norrby has the proper personal experiences to make such evaluations. In the present, his second, book he mainly reviews Medical Nobel awards during 1960 and 1962. Coming as it does near the beginnings of the modern medicine — recognizing exceptional advances in immunology and molecular biology — this is a fascinating era for those who are intrigued by the history of discovery." Peter C Doherty Nobel laureate in Physiology or Medicine, 1996 "The moment the Nobel Foundation announces its Prizes in the sciences, decades of struggle and turmoil toward discovery enter the spotlight. To skillfully examine some of the most dramatic scientific advances in the middle of the twentieth century, Erling Norrby has reached deeply into the Nobel archives to examine firsthand how many of the most illustrious Prizes from that era came to be awarded. As a superb scientist, educator and administrator, Dr Norrby is able to tell these stories within the context of the scientific discoveries." Stanley B Prusiner Nobel laureate in Physiology or Medicine, 1997 “I particularly enjoyed Norrby's lengthy treatment of the 1962 chemistry prize — to James Watson, Francis Crick, and Maurice Wilkins, 1962 for their structural work on the structure of DNA … This well-referenced and copiously illustrated book, featuring meditations, poetry, quotations, and miscellaneous musings, is a true labour of love. I heartily recommend it to anyone interested in the history of scientific discovery, the personalities of those who pursue it, and how it actually happens and is received.” Chemistry & Industry
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We are swamped with information and each day seems to bring new discoveries that must be considered. Never before in the history of science have so many scientists been as active as today. It has become a major problem for the expert just to keep up with the literature in his or her own field of research. Why, then, should experts and their poor students worry about the pioneers of microbiology, those half-forgotten scientists who a century ago devoted their lives to a new science that was on its way to revolutionizing medicine? With so many new facts and problems screaming for our attention, it is easy to lose sight of the long road that we have travelled in order to get to the point where we are now. Tracing the path of those who have gone before us will help us to see our own scientific goals and efforts in a more revealing perspective. The great figures who are at the center of interest in this book — Robert Koch, Emil von Behring, Paul Ehrlich and Elie Metchnikoff — were far from uncontroversial during their lifetimes. It is interesting to see how they were judged by their peers at the Karolinska Institutet when they were considered for the Nobel Prize. Pioneers of Microbiology and the Nobel Prize has been written in such a way that it can be enjoyed even without an extensive knowledge of microbiology and medicine. In fact, a considerable part of the book portrays the state of medicine during the middle of the 19th century, when bacteriology can be said to have made its debut on the medical scene. Contents:The Sites of DiseasesCellular PathologyThe New PhysiologyBankruptcy and a Gleam of HopeContagion Versus MiasmaThe Birth of MicrobiologyBacteriology and the Nemesis of SurgeryRobert KochEmil von BehringPaul EhrlichElie MetchnikoffNobel Prizes and Nobel Committees (1901, 1905 and 1908)In Defence of the Nobel Prize Readership: Microbiologists; medical researchers, undergraduates and graduate students in microbiology and the life sciences; general readers. Keywords:Microbiology;Medical History;Nobel Prize;Robert Koch;Emil von Behring;Paul Ehrlich;Elie MetchnikoffReviews:“… The four main sections of the book are each a gem of a portrait in the miniature. The treatment is balanced; not only human greatness but failings are presented, making the descriptions very human and informative … Ulf Lagerkvist provides interesting data and observations about the nominations and the studies conducted by various members of the Committee on the candidates.”István Hargittai Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Hungary “Lagerkvist has written an extremely informative and simple description of four giants in the field of microbiology. His easy-going style and a focus on the straightforward elements of the lives of the Nobelists make for a voyage of entertainment and education.”Sidney Altman Yale University, USA “It is an informative review of the notable achievements of four great figures in medicine whose researches have virtually been eclipsed by the rapid advances of the 20th century.”Paul Berg Stanford University Medical Center, USA “This timely book reminds us of the achievements and careers of the equally great scientific pioneers of a hundred years ago, who discovered most of the agents that cause major human diseases, and also revealed our main defence against infectious agents, the antibodies … The author provides fascinating insights into the deliberations which resulted in well deserved awards for several scientific pioneers. This is an insiders' view of the strategy for choosing the right candidates for Nobel prizes.”Tomas Lindahl Cancer Research UK London Research Institute “Just over 100 years ago, the first Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded. This book is an authoritative and entertaining account of four of the early winners. The life and work of Robert Koch, Emil von Behring, Paul Ehrlich and Elie Metchnikoff are closely examined in the light of contemporary scientific knowledge and ignorance. Politics appear to have had as much to do with their final acceptance as Nobel Prize winners as did their outstanding scientific achievements. Many full-page portraits add to the charm of this book. Members of the public wanting to learn more about the birth of microbiology will find this book invaluable. Trainee as well as experienced microbiologists and immunologists will also find much of interest. There should be a copy in the often neglected history section of all good microbiologists libraries.”Microbiology Today “The book supplies superior details about the research and the social climate leading to the discoveries and provides good insight into the intellect and personalities that make extraordinary scientific discoveries. The rationale for awarding Nobel prizes in science is also thoroughly discussed … For anybody interested in the history and process of science.”Choice “The initial chapters beautifully describe the evolution of the ideas that formed the basis not only of medical microbiology but also of physiology and pathology … This book provides a series of portraits in which not only the achievements but additionally the failings are described, and effectively conjures up the academic milieu of the time.”Notes and Records of The Royal Society
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