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This analysis of 'globalised' standard-setting processes draws together insights from law, political sciences, sociology and social anthropology to assess the authority and accountability of non-state actors and the legitimacy and effectiveness of the processes. The essays offer new understandings of current governance problems, including environmental and financial standards, rules for military contractors and complex public-private partnerships, such as those intended to protect critical information infrastructure. The contributions also evaluate multi-stakeholder initiatives (such as the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative), and discuss the constitution of public norms in stateless areas. A synopsis of the latest results of the World Governance Indicator, arguably one of the most important surveys in the area today, is included.
This book represents a conference organized by the Social Science Research Centre Berlin (WZB), the Alfred Herrhausen Society, The International Forum of the Deutsche Bank, and the Centre for the Analysis of Risk and Regulation (CARR) at the London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE) in November 2004 in London. Changes in statehood are one of the main indicators of a shift in the focus of governance onto the global level. This is manifested most clearly in the emergence and growing importance of actors that are no longer tied to national or state contexts in the traditional way, as with national parliaments, government ministries, or administrative bodies. The age of global governance is an age of international actors, such as the WTO, and of non-state actors, such as non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and transnational corporations (TNCs). The aim of the conference was to take a closer look at these non-state actors, the scope of their activities, the way they operate, and the extent to which they are perhaps more appropriately classified as "governance actors", given their function as regulators and standard setters, tasks more traditionally associated with the state.
How do non-state actors matter in international relations? This volume recognizes and examines three types of non-state actor: non-governmental organizations (NGOs), intergovernmental organizations (IGOs) and transnational corporations. It illustrates how they play roles alongside nation-states and are interrelated in matters of international regulation and coordination. Accessible and articulately written, this comprehensive collection of state-of-the-art essays is essential for both scholars and practitioners in international relations.
The concept of human security has emerged in international relations and policy as an idea which not only seeks to relocate the focus of international society on the individual, but also challenges the current priorities of the international community. In particular it places emphasis on promoting and facilitating a nexus between security, development and human rights. It is potentially a paradigm in the making, gaining considerable momentum within the UN, international relations scholarship and regional bodies. And yet by-and-large it continues to be unexplored by the international legal community, despite the success of a number of international treaties being attributed to the discourse. This book seeks to address this gap, and establish the nature of the relationship between human security discourse and international law, determining whether human security can meaningfully contribute to the international legal framework. To determine this, the book analyses the core principles of human security discourse and examines the degree to which they find parallels in the existing normative structure of international law. The book examines the how the broad-narrow debate that dominates human security discourse has played out in international law-making. It goes on to consider the processes for the creation of so called ‘human security’ treaties in order to determine a blueprint for future development of international human security treaty law. In concluding Shireen Daft sets out a structured principled approach through which international legal scholarship can engage with human security, highlighting the ways in which engagement between the two fields can be sustained.
The human rights of communities in many resource-rich, weak governance States are adversely affected, not only by the acts of States and their agents, but also by powerful non-State actors. Contemporary phenomena such as globalisation, privatisation and the proliferation of internal armed conflict have all contributed to the increasing public influence of these entities and the correlative decline in State power. This book responds to the persistent challenges stemming from non-State actors linked to extractive industries. In light of the intersecting roles of multinational enterprises and non-State armed groups in this context, these actors are adopted as the primary analytical vehicles. The operations of these entities highlight the practical flaws of existing accountability regimes and permit an exploration of the theoretical challenges that preclude their direct legal regulation at the international level. Drawing insights from discursive democracy, compliance theories and the Pure Theory of Law, the book establishes a conceptual foundation for the creation of binding international obligations addressing non-State actors. Responding to the recent calls for a binding business and human rights treaty at the UN Human Rights Council, and the growing influence of armed non-State actors, the book makes a timely contribution to debates surrounding the direction of future developments in the field of international human rights law.
How do government arrangements emerge? When and how does individual agency turn into collective agency? How do sensory experiences of violence, instability, etc affect the configuration of governance arrangements? When, why, and how are governance arrangements institutionalized? This book seeks to contribute to a non-normative conceptualization of the emergence and transformation of government arrangements, and addresses the under-theorization of actors and agency in conventional governance theories. The editors and contributors theorize the concept of governance more concretely by analyzing the key actors and arrangements that define states of governance across different places and by examining its performance and development in particular settings and time periods. Each contribution to the edited volume is based on a case-study drawn from Africa, though the book argues that the core issues identified remain the same across the world, though in different empirical contexts. The contributions also range across key disciplines, from anthropology to sociology to political science. This ground-breaking volume addresses governance arrangements, discusses how social actors form such arrangements, and concludes by synthesizing an actor-centered understanding of political articulation to a general theory of governance. Scholars across disciplines such as political science, development studies, African studies, and sociology will find the book insightful.
'Transnational Environmental Governance provides both an excellent overview of the issues to be taken into account in studying voluntary certification systems, and an effective in-depth study of the forestry and fishing cases. . . highly effective as a treatment of environmental certification, and as a starting point for the study of the phenomenon.' – J. Samuel Barkin, Global Environmental Politics 'This is a well-written and accessible book, offering a nuanced analysis of the emergence, organisation, and effectiveness of certification programs in forests and fisheries. This book is recommended to practitioners, students, and researchers interested in certification of forests and fisheries. I think it could also be useful to those with a general interest in environmental governance, as it offers valuable lessons from this empirical analysis of two of the most advances cases of (allegedly) nonstate governance.' – Erik Hysing, Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy 'This book provides a timely contribution to both academic and policy debates by examining the processes and mechanisms of the emergence and proliferation of non-state governance schemes, specifically comparing forest and fisheries certification. The empirical evidence challenges conventional wisdom by showing that political and public regulatory frameworks are essential in the implementation of certification programs. This is highly recommended reading when discussing to what extent – and how – non-state transnational governance schemes can solve the problems they were intended for.' – Katarina Eckerberg, Umeå University, Sweden 'Transnational Environmental Governance provides a comprehensive and insightful analysis of the emergence and effects of certification schemes as novel mechanisms of environmental policy-making beyond traditional intergovernmental cooperation. Gulbrandsen's multi-level study will be highly useful for scholars, practitioners and graduate students who seek to advance their understanding of private rulemaking at both national and global levels. The book is highly recommended.' – Frank Biermann, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, the Netherlands 'A comprehensive and highly informative analysis of two of the most important examples of non-state governance mechanisms that have emerged to address the shortcomings of government environmental regulation. This book's theoretical framework and detailed case-studies represent an important contribution to our understanding of the accomplishments and limitations of certification programs to advance corporate social responsibility.' – David Vogel, University of California, Berkeley, US 'Incisive and nuanced, Transnational Environmental Governance significantly advances our understanding of the capacity of certification to influence the environmental behaviour of corporations and consumers. Lars Gulbrandsen's subtle analysis leaves us with an innovative toolbox to explain when and why voluntary certification programs succeed – or fail – to strengthen environmental governance. It is essential reading for anyone wanting a more accurate way to evaluate the growing number of non-state certification programs.' – Peter Dauvergne, University of British Columbia, Canada In recent years a wide range of non-state certification programs have emerged to address environmental and social problems associated with the extraction of natural resources. This book provides a general analytical framework for assessing the emergence and effectiveness of voluntary certification programs. It focuses on certification in the forest and fisheries sectors, as initiatives in these sectors are among the most advanced cases of non-state standard setting and governance in the environmental realm. Paying particular attention to the Forest Stewardship Council and the Marine Stewardship Council, the author examines how certification initiatives emerged, the politics that underlie their development, their ability to influence producer and consumer behavior, and the broader consequences of their formation and spread. The analysis of the certification of forests and fisheries offers a wealth of insights from which to better understand the capacity of non-state governance programs to ameliorate global environmental problems. Containing a detailed review of the direct effects and broader consequences of forest and fisheries certification, this book will be warmly welcomed by scholars of environmental politics and corporate social responsibility, as well as practitioners involved in non-state certification programs throughout the world.

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