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Whether it was the demands of life, leisure, or a combination of both that forced our hands, we have developed a myriad of artefacts—-maps, notes, descriptions, diagrams, flow-charts, photographs, paintings, and prints—-that stand for other things. Most agree that images and their close relatives are special because, in some sense, they look like what they are about. This simple claim is the starting point for most philosophical investigations into the nature of depiction. On Images argues that this starting point is fundamentally misguided. Whether a representation is an image depends not on how it is perceived but on how it relates to others within a system. This kind of approach, first championed by Nelson Goodman in his Languages of Art, has not found many supporters, in part because of weaknesses with Goodman's account. On Images shows that a properly crafted structural account of pictures has many advantages over the perceptual accounts that dominate the literature on this topic. In particular, it explains the close relationship between pictures, diagrams, graphs and other kinds of non-linguistic representation. It undermines the claim that pictures are essentially visual by showing that audio recordings, tactile line drawings, and other non-visual representations are pictorial. Also, by avoiding explaining images in terms of how we perceive them, this account sheds new light on why pictures seem so perceptually special in the first place. This discussion of picture perception recasts some old debates on the topic, suggests further lines of philosophical and empirical research, and ultimately leads to a new perspective on pictorial realism.
The four-volume set LNCS 3480-3483 constitutes the refereed proceedings of the International Conference on Computational Science and Its Applications, ICCSA 2005, held in Singapore in May 2005. The four volumes present a total of 540 papers selected from around 2700 submissions. The papers span the whole range of computational science, comprising advanced applications in virtually all sciences making use of computational techniques as well as foundations, techniques, and methodologies from computer science and mathematics, such as high performance computing and communication, networking, optimization, information systems and technologies, scientific visualization, graphics, image processing, data analysis, simulation and modelling, software systems, algorithms, security, multimedia etc.
This collection of papers offers an alternative to mainstream functional linguistics on two points. Especially in American linguistics, function and structure are often viewed almost as polar opposites; in addition, structure is often understood as being only a matter of linguistic form — or expression — as opposed to content. The book tries to illustrate why function and structure must be understood as mutually dependent in relation to language — and why the most interesting aspect of language structure is the way it structures the content side of language. In this, the book represents a reaffirmation of traditional concerns in structural linguistics, especially with respect to the structural integrity of individual languages — but with a reversal of traditional priority: structure is not autonomous, but must be understood on the basis of function. Without being hostile to typological and universal generalizations, the articles suggest that similarities between languages can only be responsibly discussed on the basis of an understanding that includes a respect for language differences. The book contains discussions of a number of different languages including Nahuatl, Danish Sign Language, French, and Tlapanec, and focuses on the way meaning is organized in the grammar of Danish. A final section sums up theoretical perspectives.
This book constitutes the refereed joint proceedings of four international workshops held in conjunction with the 8th Asia-Pacific Web Conference, APWeb 2006, in Harbin, China in January 2006. The 88 revised full papers and 58 revised short papers presented are very specific and contribute to enlarging the spectrum of the more general topics treated in the APWeb 2006 main conference.
Multimedia Database Management Systems brings together in one place important contributions and up-to-date research results in this important area. Multimedia Database Management Systems serves as an excellent reference, providing insight into some of the most important research issues in the field.
This classic research monograph develops and illustrates the theory of linguistic structure known as Cognitive Grammar, and applies it to representative phenomena in English and other languages. Cognitive grammar views language as an integral facet of cognition and claims that grammatical structure cannot be understood or revealingly described independently of semantic considerations.
Discusses major aspects of content-based image retrieval (CBIR) using current technologies and applications within the artificial intelligence (AI) field.

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