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This book provides a state-of-the-art overview and assessment of the status quo and future of the Online Dispute Resolution (ODR) field. International, comparative, and interdisciplinary approaches have been utilized. Written by leading ODR scholars, the first part of the book includes an in-depth assessment of ODR, its applications, and its future in a comparative and analytical context. The second section offers a regional oriented approach, where the prospects, challenges, and success of ODR - and its applications in the North America, Latin America, Africa, Australia, Europe, and Asia - are mapped and fully addressed. The book is a must read text by scholars, practitioners, academics, and researchers in the dispute resolution and information technology field.
Die außergerichtliche Streitbeilegung unter Nutzung moderner Informations- und Telekommunikationstechniken wird unter dem Schlagwort der Online Dispute Resolution (ODR) seit Mitte der 1990er Jahre diskutiert. In den vergangenen Jahren haben sowohl die Europäische Union als auch die UN-Kommission für internationales Handelsrecht (United Nations Commission on International Trade Law, UNCITRAL) Regelungsinitiativen zu Online-Streitbeilegungsverfahren angestoßen. In der vorliegenden Arbeit werden wesentliche Strukturelemente und Verfahrensgrundsätze des europäischen Modells (bestehend aus der europäischen ADR-Richtlinie 2013/11/ EU und der ODR-Verordnung Nr. 524/2013) mit den UNCITRAL-Entwürfen zu Verfahrensvorschriften verglichen. Ein Schlaglicht wird des Weiteren auf die zur Streitbeilegung zulässigen Sacherwägungen geworfen. The use of modern information and telecommunication technology in extrajudicial dispute resolution has been discussed under the slogan of the Online Dispute Resolution (ODR) since the mid-1990s. In recent years, both the European Union and the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) have launched regulatory initiatives for online dispute resolution. The present work compares the key structural elements and procedural principles of the European model (consisting of the European ADR Directive 2013/11/ EU and ODR Regulation No. 524/2013) with the UNCITRAL draft procedural rules. Considerations that are permitted within dispute resolution are also placed under the spotlight.
The use of new information and communication technologies both inside the courts and in private online dispute resolution services is quickly changing everyday conflict management. However, the implications of the increasingly disruptive role of technology in dispute resolution remain largely undiscussed. In this book, assistant professor of law and digitalisation Riikka Koulu examines the multifaceted phenomenon of dispute resolution technology, focusing specifically on private enforcement, which modern technology enables on an unforeseen scale. The increase in private enforcement confounds legal structures and challenges the nation-state’s monopoly on violence. And, in this respect, the author argues that the technology-driven privatisation of enforcement – from direct enforcement of e-commerce platforms to self-executing smart contracts in the blockchain – brings the ethics of law’s coercive nature out into the open. This development constitutes a new, and dangerous, grey area of conflict management, which calls for transparency and public debate on the ethical implications of dispute resolution technology.
Networked communication technologies have drastically changed the relationship between States and their citizens. This fundamental shift has eased civilians’ ability to access information and organize groups like never before, creating the need to re-examine existing theories. Revolutionizing the Interaction between State and Citizens through Digital Communications evaluates the relationship between governments and their constituents, and how this relationship is impacted by emerging technologies. Discussing both developed and underdeveloped nations, this book provides a comparison for the ongoing shift in societies, serving as a critical reference for legal professionals, activists, government employees, academics, and students.
The sharing economy is just one of several possible expressions to designate the complex model of social and economic relationships based on the intensive use of digital technology. Constant permutations and combinations allow these relationships to be established through the intervention of a third party making traditional contractual positions flexible in such a way that today’s employee is tomorrow’s entrepreneur, or today’s consumer is tomorrow’s supplier of goods and services. The current legal framework is, in many respects, unable to accommodate such big changes and new legal regulations are required where adaptation of the existing ones proves to be inadequate. This book highlights where changes are needed and where adaptations are required, with a particular focus on the Portuguese, Spanish, Italian, British and Brazilian contexts. For that, four different approaches are undertaken, namely the meta-legal, macro-legal, micro-legal and transnational approaches. The study that results from these different approaches enables readers to acquire a general view on the current legal problems arising from the sharing economy, and was a direct result of a research project of the Centre for Legal and Economic Research, at the University of Porto, funded by Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia.
Improving access to justice has been an ongoing process, and on-demand justice should be a natural part of our increasingly on-demand society. What can we do for example when Facebook blocks our account, we're harassed on Twitter, discover that our credit report contains errors, or receive a negative review on Airbnb? How do we effectively resolve these and other such issues? Digital Justice introduces the reader to new technological tools to resolve and prevent disputes bringing dispute resolution to cyberspace, where those who would never look to a court for assistance can find help for instance via a smartphone. The authors focus particular attention on four areas that have seen great innovation as well as large volumes of disputes: ecommerce, healthcare, social media, and labor. As conflicts escalate with the increase in innovation, the authors emphasize the need for new dispute resolution processes and new ways to avoid disputes, something that has been ignored by those seeking to improve access to justice in the past.

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