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Bilateral tax treaties are often, to a greater or lesser extent, based on the OECD Model Convention. Among the distributive rules with respect to taxation of income which are laid down in Chapter III of that model, Article 21 assigns the tax jurisdiction in respect of "other income" - understood to mean items of income which are not dealt with in other provisions of the tax treaty - to the residence state in accordance with the main rule underlying the OECD Model, thus ensuring that no income falls outside the scope of the treaty. This study provides a comprehensive analysis of Article 21 of the OECD Model. In extensive detail, and with reference to case law from a number of jurisdictions and to statements of various authorities and official documents, the author shows how Article 21 operates in relation to the other distributive rules of the OECD Model and bilateral tax treaties based thereon. The analysis considers such items of income as the following in relation to Article 21: - income from immovable property; - business profits; - profits from shipping, inland waterways transport, and air transport; - dividends, interest, and royalties; - capital gains; and - income from employment. In addition, the author examines the significance of the OECD Commentaries for the interpretation of tax treaties, the "other income" article in other model conventions, and notable deviations from Article 21 among bilateral tax treaties. An appendix offers well-grounded recommendations on how to potentially amend the wording of Article 21 and the related commentary and how the application of the article can be improved. Although underexposed in the tax law literature heretofore, the "other income" article raises important international taxation issues that remain problematic or unresolved. Tax lawyers, government officials, and other interested professionals will find here a penetrating analysis that goes a long way towards clarifying the characterisation of income that resists the standard categories defined in tax treaties.
The principal purpose of this study is to analyse and discuss the rules and principles of international law relevant to the interpretation of treaties in general, and their application to tax treaties in particular. The rules of international law enshrined in Articles 31, 32 and 33 of the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties are discussed in detail. Where appropriate, reference is made to the jurisprudence of the International Court of Justice, and to the law and procedure of other international courts and tribunals. Since tax treaties are not only a source of legal rights and obligations for the contracting States, but can also be invoked by the taxpayers of those States, this book considers the extent to which the relevant rules and principles of international law are binding on domestic courts and taxpayers. The effect of international law in a State's national legal order is largely dependent on its relevant rules of constitutional law, which vary from country to country. In order to address this issue, the book draws upon the example of the Netherlands and provides a number of leading cases decided by the Dutch Supreme Court (Hoge Raad).
Le site d'IBFD indique : "This thesis reveals a fundamental flaw in the OECD Model, namely that it pays no attention to the person who is liable to tax in respect of the income for which treaty benefits are claimed. This "missing keystone" causes two major problems of interpretation. One problem arises if the contracting states attribute the income to different persons; the myriad ways in which such a conflict can occur is illustrated by an extensive comparison of the domestic law of the Netherlands and the United Kingdom in this respect. This missing keystone also causes a disconnection between the two principal conditions for treaty entitlement. The treaty residence of the claimant is based on a general liability to tax in a contracting state, whereas the distributive articles focus on the ownership of the income. Interpretation problems arise if domestic law imposes a tax liability on a person who is not the owner of the income, for example under anti-avoidance legislation or a corporate group regime. In order to eliminate this fundamental flaw, the thesis proposes a "new approach" in which the criterion for treaty entitlement is liability to tax on the income, backed up by substantial connections between the income and the treaty claimant and between the treaty claimant and the residence state. The new approach is tested in various situations, many of them decided cases, and proves to give appropriate policy results while respecting the tax sovereignty of states. The thesis includes a proposal for a re-draft of the OECD Model on this basis."
Inspired by a postgraduate course the authors have jointly taught at the University of Cambridge since 2001, Peter Harris and David Oliver use their divergent backgrounds (academia and tax practice) to build a conceptual framework that not only makes the tax treatment of complex commercial transactions understandable and accessible, but also challenges the current orthodoxy of international tax norms. Designed specifically for postgraduate students and junior practitioners, it challenges the reader to think about tax issues conceptually and holistically, while illustrating the structure with practical examples. Senior tax practitioners and academics will also find it useful as a means of refreshing their understanding of the basics and the conceptual framework will challenge them to think more deeply about tax issues.
International Taxation discusses international aspects of tax systems originating in national environments. It focuses on U.S. taxation as applied to economic activity with an international element. Divided into four sections: basic elements of international taxation, inbound U.S. taxation, outbound U.S. taxation, and income tax treaties.Summary of Contents" Part I: Basic Elements of International TaxationChapter1. U.S. Taxation in the International Setting2. Nationality and Residence for Taxation3. The Source of Income4. International Transfer Pricing" Part II: Inbound U.S. Taxation5. U.S. Taxation of Foreign Persons: Passive Income6. The Meaning of a U.S. "Trade or Business"7. "Effectively Connected" Income8. Gains from Sales of U.S. Real Property9. The Branch Profits Tax" Part III: Outbound U.S. Taxation10. Outbound Taxation in Overview11. The Foreign Tax Credit: Background and Overview12. The Foreign Tax Credit: Creditable Foreign Taxes13. The Credit Limitation of Section 90414. The Indirect Foreign Tax Credit15. Grand Overview of Dividends from Foreign Corporations16. Controlled Foreign Corporations: Subpart F17. Controlled Foreign Corporations: Section 124818. Passive Foreign Investment Companies (PFICs)19. International Corporate Reorganizations20. U.S. Citizens Abroad21. Income Tax Incentives for Exports" Part IV: Income Tax Treaties22. Income Tax Treaties in Overview23. Residence in Income Tax Treaties24. Business Profits - Permanent Establishments25. Compensation for Personal Services26. Interest, Dividends, Royalties, Rents, and Other Gains27. The Rise and Fall of Treaty Tax Shelters: Sandwiches, Conduits, and the Treasurys Response" Table of Cases" Index
This two-volume set offers an in-depth analysis of the leading tax treaty disputes in the G20 and beyond within the first century of international tax law. Including country-by-country and thematic analyses, the study is structured around a novel global taxonomy of tax treaty disputes and includes an unprecedented dataset with over 1500 leading tax treaty cases. By adopting a contextual approach the local expertise of the contributors allows for a thorough and transparent analysis. This set is an important reference tool for anyone implementing or studying international tax regulations and will facilitate the work of courts, tax administrations and practitioners around the world. It is designed to complement model conventions such as the OECD Model Tax Convention on Income and on Capital. Together with Resolving Transfer Pricing Disputes (2012), it is a comprehensive addition to current debate on the international tax law regime.
Differing provisions in bilateral tax treaties lead to undesired consequences. Tax administrations expend considerable energy combating tax structures devised by taxpayers and their advisers who attempt to use these differences to their advantage. This battle uselessly engages the resources of both enterprises and tax authorities. A model multilateral tax treaty could provide the solution to this problem. The advantages and disadvantages of multilateral tax treaties have been debated for many years. While some multilateral tax treaties have been concluded at regional levels, the concept has yet to gain wide acceptance. Multilateral Tax Treaties results from a research project conducted at the Department for Austrian and International Tax Law at the University of Economics and Business Administration in Vienna. The project sought to produce a draft multilateral tax treaty modeled on the OECD Model Income Tax Convention while examining in detail difficulties that arise in connection with the multilateralisation of the OECD Model. The expert papers also present a thorough analysis of the arguments for and against the conclusion of a multilateral tax treaty and of the various European law issues that arise in this context. Multilateral Tax Treaties provides incisive and thought-provoking reading for the international tax specialist and generates further discussion on this important topic.

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