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Through analyses of the complex underlying issues, this interdisciplinary volume frames the agenda for dealing with genetic variation and incorporating pharmacogenomics into health care. The three sections of this book, Research Issues, Clinical Issues, and Social Perspectives address key elements integral to a comprehensive discussion of this emerging field. This groundbreaking text… Examines new research strategies, methodologies, and ethical and social considerations of pharmacogenomics Addresses practical considerations of anticipated changes in education, training, oversight, guidelines and protocols, and continuing education requirements Provides analyses of the potential enormous impact of pharmacogenomics, such as in the standard of care and treatment, including perspectives from the fields of anthropology, law, ethics, and economics
The study of pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics focuses on how our genes and complex gene systems influence our response to drugs. Recent progress in clinical therapeutics has led to the discovery of new biomarkers that make it technically easier to identify groups of patients which are more or less likely to respond to individual therapies. The aim is to improve personalised medicine – not simply to prescribe the right medicine, but to deliver the right drug at the right dose at the right time. This textbook brings together leading experts to discuss the latest information on how human genetics impacts drug response phenotypes. It presents not only the basic principles of pharmacogenetics, but also clinically valuable examples that cover a broad range of specialties and therapeutic areas. This textbook is an invaluable introduction to pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics for health care professionals, medical students, pharmacy students, graduate students and researchers in the biosciences.
Unprecedented advances in genetics and biotechnology have brought profound new insights into human biological variation. These present challenges and opportunities for understanding the origins of human nature, the nature of difference, and the social practices these sustain. This provides an opportunity for cooperation between the biological and social sciences – one that is capable of prompting a synergistic exchange of ideas with far-reaching implications. The Nature of Differencecritically analyses biological explanations for morality, criminality, race, sexuality, and disability. Based on the 45th annual symposium of the Society for the Study of Human Biology, this work synthesizes the perspectives of established experts in the field of human biology with those studying the social meanings of human biological variation and scientific practices in human biological research. Some questions addressed by The Nature of Difference: · Is there a biological basis for morality, criminality, witchcraft, sexuality or disability? · What do comparisons of humans and apes tell us about society? · How do people draw on scientific methods to justify racism? · Why do geneticists continue to use racial categories in their research? · Do ethical guidelines constrain or facilitate research into human biology? · Can science and society escape from biological determinism? As biotechnology expands the frontiers of what we know and what we are able to do, and as the genomic revolution moves out of the laboratory and into our daily lives, we are faced with a number of pressing social issues that need to be resolved. Offering an unparalleled collection of multidisciplinary perspectives on the meanings of biological diversity, this book provides readers with a vibrant analysis which revisits these issues with deepened insight from contrasting yet complementary perspectives.
This book explores the scope, application and role of medical law, regulatory norms and ethics, and addresses key challenges introduced by contemporary advances in biomedical research and healthcare. While mindful of national developments, the handbook supports a global perspective in its approach to medical law. Contributors include leading scholars in both medical law and ethics, who have developed specially commissioned pieces in order to present a critical overview and analysis of the current state of medical law and ethics. Each chapter offers comprehensive coverage of longstanding and traditional topics in medical law and ethics, and provides dynamic insights into contemporary and emerging issues in this heavily debated field. Topics covered include: Bioethics, health and human rights Medical liability Law and emerging health technologies Public health law Personalized medicine The law and ethics of access to medicines in developing countries Medical research in the genome era Emerging legal and ethical issues in reproductive technologies This advanced level reference work will prove invaluable to legal practitioners, scholars, students and researchers in the disciplines of law, medicine, genetics, dentistry, theology, and medical ethics.
The study of pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics focuses on how our genes and complex gene systems influence our response to drugs. Recent progress in clinical therapeutics has led to the discovery of new biomarkers that make it technically easier to identify groups of patients which are more or less likely to respond to individual therapies. The aim is to improve personalised medicine – not simply to prescribe the right medicine, but to deliver the right drug at the right dose at the right time. This textbook brings together leading experts to discuss the latest information on how human genetics impacts drug response phenotypes. It presents not only the basic principles of pharmacogenetics, but also clinically valuable examples that cover a broad range of specialties and therapeutic areas. This textbook is an invaluable introduction to pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics for health care professionals, medical students, pharmacy students, graduate students and researchers in the biosciences.
At a ceremony announcing the completion of the first draft of the human genome in 2000, President Bill Clinton declared, "I believe one of the great truths to emerge from this triumphant expedition inside the human genome is that in genetic terms, all human beings, regardless of race, are more than 99.9 percent the same." Yet despite this declaration of unity, biomedical research has focused increasingly on mapping that.1 percent of difference, particularly as it relates to race. This trend is exemplified by the drug BiDil. Approved by the FDA in 2005 as the first drug with a race-specific indication on its label, BiDil was originally touted as a pathbreaking therapy to treat heart failure in black patients and help underserved populations. Upon closer examination, however, Jonathan Kahn reveals a far more complex story. At the most basic level, BiDil became racial through legal maneuvering and commercial pressure as much as through medical understandings of how the drug worked. Using BiDil as a central case study, Kahn broadly examines the legal and commercial imperatives driving the expanding role of race in biomedicine, even as scientific advances in genomics could render the issue irrelevant. He surveys the distinct politics informing the use of race in medicine and the very real health disparities caused by racism and social injustice that are now being cast as a mere function of genetic difference. Calling for a more reasoned approach to using race in biomedical research and practice, Kahn asks readers to recognize that, just as genetics is a complex field requiring sensitivity and expertise, so too is race, particularly in the field of biomedicine.
Social Aspects of Drug Discovery, Development and Commercialization provides an insightful analysis of the drug discovery and development landscape as it relates to society. This book examines the scientific, legal, philosophical, economic, political, ethical and cultural factors that contribute to drug development. The pharmaceutical industry is under scrutiny to develop safer and more effective drugs in a quicker and more affordable manner. Recent criticism and debates have emphasized varying opinions on the issues concerning the drug discovery and development process. This book provides thoughtful and valuable discussions and analysis of the social challenges and potential opportunities through all stages of the pharmaceutical process, from inception through marketing. With a unique focus on the social factors that increasingly play a role in how drug development is planned, structured, and executed throughout the drug product lifecycle, this is an essential resource for students, professors, and researchers who seek a better understanding of the interface between the pharmaceutical industry, health care systems, and society. Organized in a sequence of interrelated theories and principles that provide the foundation for increased understanding of the relevant social aspects Includes analysis of important new advances, key scientific and strategic issues, and overviews of recent progress in drug development Provides a global perspective with examples from developed areas, such as the US, Japan, Canada and Europe, as well as faster-growing and emerging economies including Brazil, Russia, India, and China Serves as an essential resource for students, professors, and researchers who seek a better understanding of the interface between the pharmaceutical industry, health care systems, and society

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