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In writing this Ninth Edition of Physics for Scientists and Engineers, we continue our ongoing efforts to improve the clarity of presentation and include new pedagogical features that help support the learning and teaching processes. Drawing on positive feedback from users of the Eighth Edition, data gathered from both professors and students who use Enhanced WebAssign, as well as reviewers’ suggestions, we have refined the text to better meet the needs of students and teachers. This textbook is intended for a course in introductory physics for students majoring in science or engineering. The entire contents of the book in its extended version could be covered in a three-semester course, but it is possible to use the material in shorter sequences with the omission of selected chapters and sections. The mathematical background of the student taking this course should ideally include one semester of calculus. If that is not possible, the student should be enrolled in a concurrent course in introductory calculus. Content The material in this book covers fundamental topics in classical physics and provides an introduction to modern physics. The book is divided into six parts. Part 1 (Chapters 1 to 14) deals with the fundamentals of Newtonian mechanics and the physics of fluids; Part 2 (Chapters 15 to 18) covers oscillations, mechanical waves, and sound; Part 3 (Chapters 19 to 22) addresses heat and thermodynamics; Part 4 (Chapters 23 to 34) treats electricity and magnetism; Part 5 (Chapters 35 to 38) covers light and optics; and Part 6 (Chapters 39 to 46) deals with relativity and modern physics. Objectives This introductory physics textbook has three main objectives: to provide the student with a clear and logical presentation of the basic concepts and principles of physics, to strengthen an understanding of the concepts and principles through a broad range of interesting real-world applications, and to develop strong problem-solving skills through an effectively organized approach. To meet these objectives, we emphasize well-organized physical arguments and a focused problem-solving strategy. At the same time, we attempt to motivate the student through practical examples that demonstrate the role of physics in other disciplines, including engineering, chemistry, and medicine. Changes in the Ninth Edition A large number of changes and improvements were made for the Ninth Edition of this text. Some of the new features are based on our experiences and on current trends in science education. Other changes were incorporated in response to comments and suggestions offered by users of the Eighth Edition and by reviewers of the manuscript. The features listed here represent the major changes in the Ninth Edition. Enhanced Integration of the Analysis Model Approach to Problem Solving. Students are faced with hundreds of problems during their physics courses. A relatively small number of fundamental principles form the basis of these problems. When faced with a new problem, a physicist forms a model of the problem that can be solved in a simple way by identifying the fundamental principle that is applicable in the problem. For example, many problems involve conservation of energy, Newton’s second law, or kinematic equations. Because the physicist has studied these principles and their applications extensively, he or she can apply this knowledge as a model for solving a new problem. Although it would be ideal for students to follow this same process, most students have difficulty becoming familiar with the entire palette of fundamental principles that are available. It is easier for students to identify a situation rather than a fundamental principle. x Preface The Analysis Model approach we focus on in this revision lays out a standard set of situations that appear in most physics problems. These situations are based on an entity in one of four simplification models: particle, system, rigid object, and wave. Once the simplification model is identified, the student thinks about what the entity is doing or how it interacts with its environment. This leads the student to identify a particular Analysis Model for the problem. For example, if an object is falling, the object is recognized as a particle experiencing an acceleration due to gravity that is constant. The student has learned that the Analysis Model of a particle under constant acceleration describes this situation. Furthermore, this model has a small number of equations associated with it for use in starting problems, the kinematic equations presented in Chapter 2. Therefore, an understanding of the situation has led to an Analysis Model, which then identifies a very small number of equations to start the problem, rather than the myriad equations that students see in the text. In this way, the use of Analysis Models leads the student to identify the fundamental principle. As the student gains more experience, he or she will lean less on the Analysis Model approach and begin to identify fundamental principles directly. To better integrate the Analysis Model approach for this edition, Analysis Model descriptive boxes have been added at the end of any section that introduces a new Analysis Model. This feature recaps the Analysis Model introduced in the section and provides examples of the types of problems that a student could solve using the Analysis Model. These boxes function as a “refresher” before students see the Analysis Models in use in the worked examples for a given section. Worked examples in the text that utilize Analysis Models are now designated with an AM icon for ease of reference. The solutions of these examples integrate the Analysis Model approach to problem solving. The approach is further reinforced in the end-of-chapter summary under the heading Analysis Models for Problem Solving, and through the new Analysis Model Tutorials that are based on selected end-of-chapter problems and appear in Enhanced WebAssign. Analysis Model Tutorials. John Jewett developed 165 tutorials (indicated in each chapter’s problem set with an AMT icon) that strengthen students’ problem-solving skills by guiding them through the steps in the problem-solving process. Important first steps include making predictions and focusing on physics concepts before solving the problem quantitatively. A critical component of these tutorials is the selection of an appropriate Analysis Model to describe what is going on in the problem. This step allows students to make the important link between the situation in the problem and the mathematical representation of the situation. Analysis Model tutorials include meaningful feedback at each step to help students practice the problem-solving process and improve their skills. In addition, the feedback addresses student misconceptions and helps them to catch algebraic and other mathematical errors. Solutions are carried out symbolically as long as possible, with numerical values substituted at the end. This feature helps students understand the effects of changing the values of each variable in the problem, avoids unnecessary repetitive substitution of the same numbers, and eliminates round-off errors. Feedback at the end of the tutorial encourages students to compare the final answer with their original predictions. Annotated Instructor’s Edition. New for this edition, the Annotated Instructor’s Edition provides instructors with teaching tips and other notes on how to utilize the textbook in the classroom, via cyan annotations. Additionally, the full complement of icons describing the various types of problems will be included in the questions/problems sets (the Student Edition contains only those icons needed by students). PreLecture Explorations. The Active Figure questions in WebAssign from the Eighth Edition have been completely revised. The simulations have been updated, with additional parameters to enhance investigation of a physical phenomenon. Students can make predictions, change the parameters, and then observe the results. Each new PreLecture Exploration comes with conceptual and analytical questions that guide students to a deeper understanding and help promote a robust physical intuition. New Master Its Added in Enhanced WebAssign. Approximately 50 new Master Its in Enhanced WebAssign have been added for this edition to the end-of-chapter problem sets. Chapter-by-Chapter Changes The list below highlights some of the major changes for the Ninth Edition.