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Explores the myths and iconography of the Greek god Poseidon, and the cult of the sea he inspired
Marzano explores the exploitation of marine resources in the Roman world and its role within the economy. Bringing together literary, epigraphic, archaeological, and legal sources, she shows that these marine resources were an important feature of the Roman economy and paralleled phenomena taking place in the Roman agricultural economy on land.
The fury and beauty of the ocean. The vitality and violence of the land. The depths of emotion that mortals rarely plumb. These are all aspects of Poseidon: father, king, earth-shaker, savior, rager, securer, plant-nourisher, dasher against rocks, holder of the earth. In this volume, Poseidon devotee Terentios Poseidonides shares his experience of this elder Olympian through divinely-inspired hymns and poetry. The pieces, which vary in style from free verse to couplets and with tones that reflect the moods of the ocean itself, are inspired by epithets of Poseidon both modern and ancient. Each entry is suitable for inclusion during rituals tied to Poseidon and as offerings to him. In addition, the author supplements them with his own suggestions about additional offerings and times of year to honor Poseidon, drawing upon his personal gnosis, ancient sources, and the experience of co-religionists.
Marie-Claire Beaulieu unifies the multifarious representations of the sea and sea crossings in Greek myth and imagery by positing the sea as a cosmological boundary between the mortal world, the underworld, and the realms of the immortal. Through six in-depth case studies, she shows how, more than a simple physical boundary, the sea represented the buffer zone between the imaginary and the real, the transitional space between the worlds of the living, the dead, and the gods.
This single-volume resource explores the five major oceans of the world, addressing current issues such as sea rise and climate change and explaining the significance of the oceans from historical, geographic, and cultural perspectives. • Introduces readers to the five major oceans of the world and provides ready-reference entries relating to geography, the environment, science, history, and culture • Entries are engaging and accessible to all readers from high school to university students to general readers • Includes sidebars of "fun facts" throughout the text that highlight interesting oceanic subtopics
*Includes pictures *Includes ancient accounts of Poseidon *Includes online resources and a bibliography for further reading "I begin to sing about Poseidon, the great god, mover of the earth and fruitless sea, god of the deep who is also lord of Helicon and wide Aegae. A two-fold office the gods allotted you, O Shaker of the Earth, to be a tamer of horses and a savior of ships! Hail, Poseidon, Holder of the Earth, dark-haired lord! O blessed one, be kindly in heart and help those who voyage in ships!" = Homeric Hymn to Poseidon Poseidon is one of the most easily recognizable characters in all of ancient Greek mythology. His signature trident is iconic; one sight of it invariably floods the modern mind with images of aquatic chariots and daunting typhoons. But there is so much more to the character of Poseidon than maritime denizens and disasters, which shouldn't really come as a surprise. Poseidon was one of the most revered gods of the ancient Mediterranean for centuries - if not millennia - and that kind of reverence brings with it the layering of myths, rituals, and history like the strata of sediments on a river bed. The idea of a god like Poseidon being only the god of the sea is too minimalistic and too reductionist to come anywhere near the truth of how an ancient worshipper may have pictured him in her prayers. In Aristophanes's comedy The Birds, Poseidon is depicted as a haughty, stern character with little changeability or volatility. He is the typical "pillar" of the Pantheon of Olympian gods that Poseidon came to represent to later audiences. However, it is vital to remember that The Birds was performed nearly two centuries after the opening quote of this book, and the evolution of Poseidon's character is a stark one. A "Shaker of the Earth" and a "savior of ships" can hardly be expected to be mundane. Acclaimed historian Robert Parker put it best when he said, "Poseidon was a god of the old-fashioned, ambiguous type who had the power to quell storms because he also had power to raise them." Notice "old-fashioned" has nothing to do with "reliability" or "dependability." If anything, very early religion in ancient Greece was more fluid and volatile. Gods could be dismissed or assimilated by other gods and cults could "invade" territories and overthrow or adopt the local gods as facets of their own personalities. In Archaic Greece, the cult idol was often an amorphous block of wood called a Xoanon, which people would worship as an aniconic symbol of a numinous power with a name. This ambiguity of character granted Poseidon and the other gods the ability to gradually adopt the characteristics of their personalities and cults over time. Their personas evolved thanks to a series of catastrophic and logical events visible in both the literary and archaeological record and continued to do so until they became the calcified, easily understandable stock characters of modern-day mythology books. With just a cursory look into the evolution of his character, however, Poseidon becomes as mercurial and turbulent and fascinating as the sea itself. Poseidon: The Origins and History of the Greek God of the Sea looks at the story of the Sea God and the various roles he played in Greek mythology. Along with pictures depicting important people, places, and events, you will learn about Poseidon like never before.
An introduction to the gods and goddesses of ancient Greece.

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