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The first choice among land development engineers, this edition is newly updated and expanded. It is required reading for young engineers and a convenient reference for experienced engineers. This is the essential book for civil engineers in land development and provides helpful information for all land development professionals including feasibility studies and cost estimating. Practical Manual of Land Development provides step-by-step instructions for design, including formulas, tools, technical data, guidelines, and checklists to make your development project run smoothly. The Forth Edition emphasizes efficient usage of computers and now includes specifications for ADA and NPDES. It is presented in metric as well English units. New chapters added and charts up-dated.
Properly planned and visualized, large-scale developments can be successfully constructed, whether as master planned communities, planned unit developments, or new towns. Fundamentals of Land Development provides an in-depth approach to the design, planning, and development of large land areas into comprehensively designed communities. This book provides in-depth discussions of the full range of development tasks involved in any large development project, from site and land use selection, market analysis, preparing the land use plan and impact statements, to getting approval from the municipality and community, permitting and approval, scheduling and cost management, and the basics of engineering systems and design. Developers and other stake-holders will find guidance on such issues as: • How real-world development is driven by profits, and how team members can maximize profits while developing creatively and responsibly • Site selection and acquisition • Entering the growing business of retirement (active adult) community development Illustrated with real-world case studies drawn from the authors own experience, Fundamentals of Land Development is a practical manual for developers looking to improve the profitability of their projects and gain a better understanding of what all team members undertake in a project of this size and complexity.
Planning the Built Environment takes a systematic, technical approach to describing how urban infrastructures work. Accompanied by detailed diagrams, illustrations, tables, and reference lists, the book begins with landforms and progresses to essential utilities that manage drainage, wastewater, power, and water supply. A section on streets, highways, and transit systems is highly detailed and practical. Once firmly grounded in these "macro" systems, Planning the Built Environment examines the physical environments of cities and suburbs, including a discussion of critical elements such as street and subdivision planning, density, and siting of community facilities. Each chapter includes essential definitions, illustrations and diagrams, and an annotated list of references. This timely book explains new physical planning methods and current thinking on cluster development, new urbanism, and innovative transit planning and development. Planners, architects, engineers, and anyone who designs or manages the physical components of urban areas will find this book both an authoritative reference and an exhaustive, understandable technical manual of facts and best practices. Instructors in planning and allied fields will appreciate the practical exercises that conclude each chapter: valuable learning tools for students and professionals alike.
OVERVIEW OF THE LAND DEVELOPMENT PROCESS Sidney O. Dewberry, P.E., L.S. / Dennis Couture, A.S.L.A, R.L.A. LAND DEVELOPMENT Urban design experts plan the cities and communities of today and tomorrow. The many specialists involved are highly educated and experienced in several fields. They handle a host of tasks, encompassing feasibility studies, zoning applications, environmental regulations, designs, permits, and the hundreds of steps necessary to design and construct a project. Just What Is Land Development? The conversion of land from one use to another is the generally accepted definition of land development. As used in this book, it is confined to land conversion associated with the modern communities that are being constructed, or reconstructed, for people to live, work, worship, shop, play, and with other supporting land uses. This age-old process began when ancient societies organized themselves into tribes, settling on and claiming land, forming villages and primitive towns, for the mutual protection and livelihood of all. The great civilizations of Egypt, Greece, and Rome can be traced to humble beginnings in tribal communities. Their growth in size and complexity is typical of urban development and not unlike what we are experiencing today in the United States. With their complex roadways, aqueducts, commercial markets, and residential areas, the ancients battled problems of transportation, waste disposal, drainage, water supply, population densities, and a host of others. One can be certain that complaining neighbors existed then as now. Yet today, the process for finding solutions and developing scenarios that serve the greater good is systematic and, to a large degree, uniform in principle, and beginning to be uniform in practice. The systematic approach to land use planning, analysis, and engineering is known as land development design. Land development is the entire process, from concept through design and construction. The Conversion of Land Since the early 1950s, the conversion of land to a different use has generally meant a more intensive use. The definition formerly applied almost exclusively to residential, commercial, retail, industrial, and employment center land uses. It did not take long, however, before city planners and residents alike echoed Daniel Boone’s call for elbow room and clamored to have areas preserved for recreational, educational, social, and cultural activities as well as for the roadways and services to support them. And while the typical land development definition was broadened to include such activities as conversion of rural land to agriculture use, construction of major transportation and utility systems, or even central city redevelopment, the meaning for the purposes of this Handbook is the conversion of land from one use to another, usually of greater intensity, and is typically applied to residential, commercial / retail, industrial, and employment centers with supporting uses and supporting infrastructure. Land development design is the systematic process of collecting data, studying and understanding the data, extrapolating the data, and creating on paper the plans for reshaping the land to yield a land development project that is politically, economically, and environmentally acceptable to the client and the public. Persuasion, salesmanship, and negotiation are part of the process. For the purposes of this Handbook, architectural design is included only insofar as it provides preliminary or schematic elements sufficient to Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com) Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website. Source: LAND DEVELOPMENT HANDBOOK 4 O V E R V I E W define size, bulk, shape, and densities. Appearance, heights, setbacks, and aesthetics factor into the final product, and for this reason architects are frequently members of land development design teams. However, the detailed design of buildings is a subject for another time and another author. The Land Professional With the advent of land use regulations, significant environmental constraints imposed by federal, state, and local governments, and the heavy involvement of citizens impacted by new developments, dedicated land use professionals must be prepared to draw on a wealth of resources to design a project that is appealing to both the end user and the surrounding community yet be cost effective to the client. These professionals must be adept at balancing the objectives of the client with the expectations of the citizenry and public approval agencies. They must be prepared to handle a diversity of projects, from the relatively simple conversion of vacant land to residential sites to the development of in-fill sites and complex, large-scale mixed-use projects. The skills, innovative thinking, and creativity needed to make a land development project successful are gained through years of experience and encompass the entire spectrum of activities from land acquisition, rezoning, planning, engineering, and surveying to construction. The talents of many specialists, including environmentalists, architects, land surveyors, civil engineers, landscape architects, archaeologists, historians, geotechnical engineers, arborists, land use attorneys, and noise abatement technicians, just to name a few, contribute to a project’s success. This Handbook Undeniably, the land development design process, however systematic it is, varies considerably throughout the United States due to the diversity of state and local regulations controlling land use and land subdivision. Yet within the process there are many elements common throughout the jurisdictions. Even if it were intentionally written for a particular microregion, no book could present the specific design process due to the dynamics of the regulations. This book is a presentation of a typical design process, but in no way should it be construed as the design process. It is our hope that this Handbook will aid you in anticipating the multiple issues and requirements you will no doubt encounter as you progress through the various stages of project development or as you seek to broaden your professional understanding of the complexities of land development. For the developer, it will be an invaluable tool to understand the services he or she will be acquiring from various design specialists and will prepare him or her for the regulation maze ahead. For those entering the land design profession, whether in the public sector or as a consultant, this Handbook will aid you in the development of the skills needed. For the practitioner it will prove an invaluable reference tool. But before we proceed with where we are today, a bit of background is in order. HISTORY OF SUBURBAN GROWTH1 At the heart of all suburban growth is land development— the conversion of rural or vacant land to some sort of residential use. The process involves property owners, speculators, banks, private lenders, builders, and buyers. As land values at the center of the metropolis rise, individual parcels either produce the higher yields to hold their place, or in the course of a few years, more profitable businesses move in on the site. By the same token, if much the same yield can be earned at a peripheral site of lower value, there is little incentive to remain in and around the central business district. The pattern of urban land investments affects the value of outlying farmlands, which either increase yields by more profitable crop, or, as is the usually the case, they give way to more lucrative subdivision and real-estate developments ( Jackson, 1985). These words describing the fundamental interrelationship of real estate, suburbanization, and land development were realized and practiced throughout the 19th century much as they are today. From ancient Mesopotamia to colonial America, one can find residential suburbs in every culture, yet the systematic evolution of suburbanization— the ‘‘process involving the systematic growth of fringe areas at a pace more rapid than that of core cities, as a lifestyle involving a daily commute to jobs in the center’’ (Jackson, 1985, p. 13)—did not really materialize until the very early 19th century in the United States. Two significant factors influenced the suburbanization of America. First is the advancement of modern transportation. Second is the rapid population increase in cities during the first half of the 19th century (see Table 1.1). The Move to Suburban Life In the 1700s, homes, shops, public buildings, hotels, places of worship, and commerce were interspersed throughout urban areas. This pattern reflects a lifestyle whose primary modes of transportation were the horse and foot. Shopkeepers usually lived above their stores, and those who didn’t generally lived within one mile. Before the 19th century, in most cities throughout the world, the distinction between the city and the country, that is, the suburbs, was both social and economic. The aristocracy lived at the prestigious addresses located in the core of the city near the places of culture and commerce. The denizens of the outer fringes farther away from available services were perceived to be inferior to those closer in. 1 A comprehensive treatise on suburban growth in the United States is Kenneth T. Jackson’s Crabgrass Frontier: The Suburbanization of the United States (Jackson, 1985). The following has been adapted from Jackson’s book. Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com) Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website. OVERVIEW OF THE LAND DEVELOPMENT PROCESS 1 OVERVIEW OF THE LAND DEVELOPMENT PROCESS 5 T A B L E 1 . 1 Population of Principal Cities 1800–1850 (U.S. Census Bureau) LOCATION 1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 B.o. s. t.o.n. ., .M. .a.s.s... . . . . . . . . . . . .2.4. .,9.3. .7. . . . . . . . . .3.3. ,.2.5. .0. . . . . . . . . . .4.3. .,2.9. .8. . . . . . . . . . .6. 1. .,3. .9.2. . . . . . . . . . .9. .3.,3. .8.3. . . . . . . . . .1. 3. .6.,.8.8.1. N.e.w. . .Y.o. r.k.,. .N...Y... . . . . . . . . . . .6.0. .,4.8. .9. . . . . . . . . .9.6. ,.3.7. .3. . . . . . . . . .1.2.3. .,7. 0. .6. . . . . . . . . .2.0. 2. .,5. .8.9. . . . . . . . . .3.4. .2.,7. .1.0. . . . . . . . . .5. 1. .5.,.5.4.7. P.h. i.l.a.d.e.l.p.h.i.a.,.P. a. .. . . . . . . . . . .6.9. .,4.0. .3. . . . . . . . . .9.1. ,.8.7. .4. . . . . . . . . .1.1.2. .,7. 7. .2. . . . . . . . . .1.6. 1. .,4. .1.0. . . . . . . . . .2.2. .0.,4. .4.3. . . . . . . . . .3. 4. .0.,.0.4.5. B.a.l.ti.m. .o.r.e.,.M. .d. .. . . . . . . . . . . . .2.6. .,1.1. .4. . . . . . . . . .3.5. ,.5.8. .3. . . . . . . . . . .6.2. .,7.3. .8. . . . . . . . . . .8. 0. .,6. .2.5. . . . . . . . . .1.0. .2.,3. .1.3. . . . . . . . . .1. 6. .9.,.0.5.4. W. .a.s.h.i.n.g.t.o.n.,. .D...C... . . . . . . . . . .3. .,2.1. .0. . . . . . . . . . .8. ,.2.0. 8. . . . . . . . . . . .1.3. .,2.1. .7. . . . . . . . . . .1. 8. .,8. .2.7. . . . . . . . . . .2. .3.,3. .5.4. . . . . . . . . . . 4. .0.,.0.0.1. C.i.n.c.i.n.n.a.t.i., .O. .h... . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7.5. .0. . . . . . . . . . .2. ,.5.4. 0. . . . . . . . . . . . .9. .,6.4. .2. . . . . . . . . . .2. 4. .,8. .3.1. . . . . . . . . . .4. .6.,3. .3.8. . . . . . . . . .1. 1. .5.,.4.3.6. New Orleans, La. ...... 17,242 27,176 46,310 102,193 116,375 F I G U R E 1 . 1 An antique omnibus. (Chicago Historical Society) That soon changed with an expanded population and transportation network. Congestion and the need for better, more affordable living accommodations forced people to the periphery of the city, where land was more available and less expensive. In the 1820s, the distinction between city and country was fading. The evolution of new technologies in transportation changed the character of the city from a walking city to a commuter city. As the outer fringe areas became accessible there was a shift in residential status. The suburbs were no longer perceived as the residence for the Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com) Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website. OVERVIEW OF THE LAND DEVELO
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