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This monograph provides and explains the probability theory of geometric graphs. Applications of the theory include communications networks, classification, spatial statistics, epidemiology, astrophysics and neural networks.
Introducing the reader to the mathematics beyond complex networked systems, these lecture notes investigate graph theory, graphical models, and methods from statistical physics. Complex networked systems play a fundamental role in our society, both in everyday life and in scientific research, with applications ranging from physics and biology to economics and finance. The book is self-contained, and requires only an undergraduate mathematical background.
This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 17th International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation, ISAAC 2006, held in Kolkata, India, December 2006. The 73 revised full papers cover algorithms and data structures, online algorithms, approximation algorithm, computational geometry, computational complexity, optimization and biology, combinatorial optimization and quantum computing, as well as distributed computing and cryptography.
This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 32nd International Colloquium on Automata, Languages and Programming, ICALP 2005, held in Lisbon, Portugal in July 2005.The 113 revised full papers presented together with abstracts of 5 invited talks were carefully reviewed and selected from 407 submissions. The papers address all current issues in theoretical computer science and are organized in topical sections on data structures, cryptography and complexity, cryptography and distributed systems, graph algorithms, security mechanisms, automata and formal languages, signature and message authentication, algorithmic game theory, automata and logic, computational algebra, cache-oblivious algorithms and algorithmic engineering, on-line algorithms, security protocols logic, random graphs, concurrency, encryption and related primitives, approximation algorithms, games, lower bounds, probability, algebraic computation and communication complexity, string matching and computational biology, quantum complexity, analysis and verification, geometry and load balancing, concrete complexity and codes, and model theory and model checking.
With the advent of digital computers more than half a century ago, - searchers working in a wide range of scienti?c disciplines have obtained an extremely powerful tool to pursue deep understanding of natural processes in physical, chemical, and biological systems. Computers pose a great ch- lenge to mathematical sciences, as the range of phenomena available for rigorous mathematical analysis has been enormously expanded, demanding the development of a new generation of mathematical tools. There is an explosive growth of new mathematical disciplines to satisfy this demand, in particular related to discrete mathematics. However, it can be argued that at large mathematics is yet to provide the essential breakthrough to meet the challenge. The required paradigm shift in our view should be compa- ble to the shift in scienti?c thinking provided by the Newtonian revolution over 300 years ago. Studies of large-scale random graphs and networks are critical for the progress, using methods of discrete mathematics, probabil- tic combinatorics, graph theory, and statistical physics. Recent advances in large scale random network studies are described in this handbook, which provides a signi?cant update and extension - yond the materials presented in the “Handbook of Graphs and Networks” published in 2003 by Wiley. The present volume puts special emphasis on large-scale networks and random processes, which deemed as crucial for - tureprogressinthe?eld. Theissuesrelatedtorandomgraphsandnetworks pose very di?cult mathematical questions.
A modern introduction to the Poisson process, with general point processes and random measures, and applications to stochastic geometry.
Generating random networks efficiently and accurately is an important challenge for practical applications, and an interesting question for theoretical study. This book presents and discusses common methods of generating random graphs. It begins with approaches such as Exponential Random Graph Models, where the targeted probability of each network appearing in the ensemble is specified. This section also includes degree-preserving randomisation algorithms, where the aim is to generate networks with the correct number of links at each node, and care must be taken to avoid introducing a bias. Separately, it looks at growth style algorithms (e.g. preferential attachment) which aim to model a real process and then to analyse the resulting ensemble of graphs. It also covers how to generate special types of graphs including modular graphs, graphs with community structure and temporal graphs. The book is aimed at the graduate student or advanced undergraduate. It includes many worked examples and open questions making it suitable for use in teaching. Explicit pseudocode algorithms are included throughout the book to make the ideas straightforward to apply. With larger and larger datasets, it is crucial to have practical and well-understood tools. Being able to test a hypothesis against a properly specified control case is at the heart of the 'scientific method'. Hence, knowledge on how to generate controlled and unbiased random graph ensembles is vital for anybody wishing to apply network science in their research.

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