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"This book is a comprehensive text for the design of safety critical, hard real-time embedded systems. It offers a splendid example for the balanced, integrated treatment of systems and software engineering, helping readers tackle the hardest problems of advanced real-time system design, such as determinism, compositionality, timing and fault management. This book is an essential reading for advanced undergraduates and graduate students in a wide range of disciplines impacted by embedded computing and software. Its conceptual clarity, the style of explanations and the examples make the abstract concepts accessible for a wide audience." Janos Sztipanovits, Director E. Bronson Ingram Distinguished Professor of Engineering Institute for Software Integrated Systems Vanderbilt University Real-Time Systems focuses on hard real-time systems, which are computing systems that must meet their temporal specification in all anticipated load and fault scenarios. The book stresses the system aspects of distributed real-time applications, treating the issues of real-time, distribution and fault-tolerance from an integral point of view. A unique cross-fertilization of ideas and concepts between the academic and industrial worlds has led to the inclusion of many insightful examples from industry to explain the fundamental scientific concepts in a real-world setting. Compared to the first edition, new developments in complexity management, energy and power management, dependability, security, and the internet of things, are addressed. The book is written as a standard textbook for a high-level undergraduate or graduate course on real-time embedded systems or cyber-physical systems. Its practical approach to solving real-time problems, along with numerous summary exercises, makes it an excellent choice for researchers and practitioners alike.
Until the late 1980s, information processing was associated with large mainframe computers and huge tape drives. During the 1990s, this trend shifted toward information processing with personal computers, or PCs. The trend toward miniaturization continues and in the future the majority of information processing systems will be small mobile computers, many of which will be embedded into larger products and interfaced to the physical environment. Hence, these kinds of systems are called embedded systems. Embedded systems together with their physical environment are called cyber-physical systems. Examples include systems such as transportation and fabrication equipment. It is expected that the total market volume of embedded systems will be significantly larger than that of traditional information processing systems such as PCs and mainframes. Embedded systems share a number of common characteristics. For example, they must be dependable, efficient, meet real-time constraints and require customized user interfaces (instead of generic keyboard and mouse interfaces). Therefore, it makes sense to consider common principles of embedded system design. Embedded System Design starts with an introduction into the area and a survey of specification models and languages for embedded and cyber-physical systems. It provides a brief overview of hardware devices used for such systems and presents the essentials of system software for embedded systems, like real-time operating systems. The book also discusses evaluation and validation techniques for embedded systems. Furthermore, the book presents an overview of techniques for mapping applications to execution platforms. Due to the importance of resource efficiency, the book also contains a selected set of optimization techniques for embedded systems, including special compilation techniques. The book closes with a brief survey on testing. Embedded System Design can be used as a text book for courses on embedded systems and as a source which provides pointers to relevant material in the area for PhD students and teachers. It assumes a basic knowledge of information processing hardware and software. Courseware related to this book is available at http://ls12-www.cs.tu-dortmund.de/~marwedel.
The focus of this volume is comprised of the fundamentals, models, and information technologies (IT) methods and tools for disaster prediction and mitigation. A more detailed list of topics includes mathematical and computational modeling of processes leading to or producing disasters, modeling of disaster effects, IT means for disaster mitigation, including data mining tools, knowledge-based and expert systems for use in disaster circumstances, GIS-based systems for disaster prevention and mitigation and equipment for disaster-prone areas. A specific type or class of disasters (natural or human-made), however will not be part of the main focus of this work. Instead, this book was conceived to offer a comprehensive, integrative view on disasters, seeking to determine what various disasters have in common. Because disaster resilience and mitigation involve humans, societies and cultures, not only technologies and economic models, special attention was paid in this volume to gain a comprehensive view on these issues, as a foundation of the IT tool design.
Many real-time systems rely on static scheduling algorithms. This includes cyclic scheduling, rate monotonic scheduling and fixed schedules created by off-line scheduling techniques such as dynamic programming, heuristic search, and simulated annealing. However, for many real-time systems, static scheduling algorithms are quite restrictive and inflexible. For example, highly automated agile manufacturing, command, control and communications, and distributed real-time multimedia applications all operate over long lifetimes and in highly non-deterministic environments. Dynamic real-time scheduling algorithms are more appropriate for these systems and are used in such systems. Many of these algorithms are based on earliest deadline first (EDF) policies. There exists a wealth of literature on EDF-based scheduling with many extensions to deal with sophisticated issues such as precedence constraints, resource requirements, system overload, multi-processors, and distributed systems. Deadline Scheduling for Real-Time Systems: EDF and Related Algorithms aims at collecting a significant body of knowledge on EDF scheduling for real-time systems, but it does not try to be all-inclusive (the literature is too extensive). The book primarily presents the algorithms and associated analysis, but guidelines, rules, and implementation considerations are also discussed, especially for the more complicated situations where mathematical analysis is difficult. In general, it is very difficult to codify and taxonomize scheduling knowledge because there are many performance metrics, task characteristics, and system configurations. Also, adding to the complexity is the fact that a variety of algorithms have been designed for different combinations of these considerations. In spite of the recent advances there are still gaps in the solution space and there is a need to integrate the available solutions. For example, a list of issues to consider includes: preemptive versus non-preemptive tasks, uni-processors versus multi-processors, using EDF at dispatch time versus EDF-based planning, precedence constraints among tasks, resource constraints, periodic versus aperiodic versus sporadic tasks, scheduling during overload, fault tolerance requirements, and providing guarantees and levels of guarantees (meeting quality of service requirements). Deadline Scheduling for Real-Time Systems: EDF and Related Algorithms should be of interest to researchers, real-time system designers, and instructors and students, either as a focussed course on deadline-based scheduling for real-time systems, or, more likely, as part of a more general course on real-time computing. The book serves as an invaluable reference in this fast-moving field.
The leading text in the field explains step by step how to writesoftware that responds in real time From power plants to medicine to avionics, the worldincreasingly depends on computer systems that can compute andrespond to various excitations in real time. The Fourth Editionof Real-Time Systems Design and Analysis gives softwaredesigners the knowledge and the tools needed to create real-timesoftware using a holistic, systems-based approach. The text coverscomputer architecture and organization, operating systems, softwareengineering, programming languages, and compiler theory, all fromthe perspective of real-time systems design. The Fourth Edition of this renowned text brings itthoroughly up to date with the latest technological advances andapplications. This fully updated edition includes coverage of thefollowing concepts: Multidisciplinary design challenges Time-triggered architectures Architectural advancements Automatic code generation Peripheral interfacing Life-cycle processes The final chapter of the text offers an expert perspective onthe future of real-time systems and their applications. The text is self-contained, enabling instructors and readers tofocus on the material that is most important to their needs andinterests. Suggestions for additional readings guide readers tomore in-depth discussions on each individual topic. In addition,each chapter features exercises ranging from simple to challengingto help readers progressively build and fine-tune their ability todesign their own real-time software programs. Now fully up to date with the latest technological advances andapplications in the field, Real-Time Systems Design andAnalysis remains the top choice for students and softwareengineers who want to design better and faster real-time systems atminimum cost.
Real-time computer systems are very often subject to dependability requirements because of their application areas. Fly-by-wire airplane control systems, control of power plants, industrial process control systems and others are required to continue their function despite faults. Fault-tolerance and real-time requirements thus constitute a kind of natural combination in process control applications. Systematic fault-tolerance is based on redundancy, which is used to mask failures of individual components. The problem of replica determinism is thereby to ensure that replicated components show consistent behavior in the absence of faults. It might seem trivial that, given an identical sequence of inputs, replicated computer systems will produce consistent outputs. Unfortunately, this is not the case. The problem of replica non-determinism and the presentation of its possible solutions is the subject of Fault-Tolerant Real-Time Systems: The Problem of Replica Determinism. The field of automotive electronics is an important application area of fault-tolerant real-time systems. Systems like anti-lock braking, engine control, active suspension or vehicle dynamics control have demanding real-time and fault-tolerance requirements. These requirements have to be met even in the presence of very limited resources since cost is extremely important. Because of its interesting properties Fault-Tolerant Real-Time Systems gives an introduction to the application area of automotive electronics. The requirements of automotive electronics are a topic of discussion in the remainder of this work and are used as a benchmark to evaluate solutions to the problem of replica determinism.

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