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The Routledge Encyclopedia of Language Teaching and Learning is an authoritative reference dealing with all aspects of this increasingly important field of study. Offering a comprehensive range of articles on contemporary language teaching and its history, it has been produced specifically for language teaching professionals and as a reference work for academic studies at postgraduate level. In this new edition, every single entry has been reviewed and updated with reference to new developments and publications. Coverage has been expanded to reflect new technological, global and academic developments, with particular attention to areas such as online and distance learning, teacher and learner cognition, testing, assessment and evaluation, global English and teacher education. Themes and disciplines covered include: Methods and materials, including new technologies and materials development Contexts and concepts, such as mediation, risk-taking in language learning and intercomprehension Influential figures from the early days of language teaching to the contemporary Related disciplines, such as psychology, anthropology and corpus linguistics? It covers the teaching of specific languages, including Japanese, Chinese, Arabic and African languages, as well as English, French, German and Spanish. There are thirty five overview articles dealing with issues such as communicative language teaching, early language learning, teacher education and syllabus and curriculum design. A further 160 entries focus on topics such as bilingualism, language laboratories and study abroad. Numerous shorter items examine language and cultural institutions, professional associations and acronyms. Multiple cross-references enable the user to browse from one entry to another, and there are suggestions for further reading. Written by an international team of specialists, the Routledge Encyclopedia of Language Teaching and Learning is an invaluable resource and reference manual for anyone with a professional or academic interest in the subject.
Introduction Purpose At the turn of the twenty-first century, it has become a commonplace to remark how the world has become a village where people of many different places and origins encounter each other in real or virtual space, in ways which a generation ago would have seemed impossible. Encounters mean communication, and communication should lead to understanding and harmony, or at the very least a reduction of conflict. Yet communication depends above all on overcoming the barriers which languages can symbolise, especially for those who do not live in societies where a variety of languages are already part of their environment. Language learning has become a necessity for everyone, even those whose first language is English, currently a dominant lingua franca, but whose future is unpredictable. Perhaps ironically, this current situation means that this encyclopedia can be published in one language, English, and be accessible to the largest number of readers, although we are acutely conscious that there are still limitations. When the language(s) that are needed are not readily available in the immediate environment, learning becomes dependent on teaching, for, despite the ease and inevitability of first language(s) acquisition in early childhood, language learning of any other kind turns out to be a complex and difficult task. It is in these circumstances that, for over a century, language teaching has increasingly become a significant profession. At the same time, the complexity of the task of language learning, and therefore of teaching, has become more and more apparent. That complexity has been met with the ingenuity of learners and teachers to devise methods, to create environments, to understand the processes, to simplify and systematise, to find appropriate institutions, all of which is multiplied by the number of traditions which have developed at different times and places more or less independently of each other. For those who are professionally engaged in language teaching—as teachers, as teacher educators, as inspectors and evaluators, as testers and assessors, as curriculum designers and materials producers—the field has become so complex that it is difficult to know. Like other professions, they need works of reference, those which describe the languages they teach, and those which describe the discipline which they profess. The former include grammars and dictionaries but also the encyclopedias of languages and linguistics which have become commonplace. This encyclopedia is in the latter category. It provides an authoritative account of the discipline of language teaching in all its complexity. It does so in a way which makes that account readily accessible, whether for quick reference or as a means of gaining an overview and insight in depth of a particular issue. It also enables the language teaching professional to discover the relationship of language teaching to other disciplines. It can thus provide rapid help on a particular problem or be the basis for in-depth and wideranging study, as one entry leads to another through the use of cross-references in the text and after each entry, and lists of further reading. Readership The encyclopedia has been created for the language teaching profession. Language teaching professionals—there is unfortunately no generic term to cover the different branches—are like those in other professions which draw upon a range of academic disciplines, pure and applied. They have their own knowledge and skills, and yet they also need to be familiar with other disciplines, such as psychology, sociology, linguistics. This encyclopedia therefore presents accounts both of professional knowledge and skills, and of the supporting or source disciplines. Because language teaching as a modern profession is relatively young, having grown very quickly and in many different places in parallel, neither an agreed body of knowledge nor a defined and fixed terminology are widely available. Readers in one country may not be familiar with the advances and terminology of another, and the use of different languages for professional purposes makes the situation even more complex. We hope that this encyclopedia will help to bridge some of these inevitable gaps. It has been deliberately produced with as wide an audience as possible in mind, accepting that this itself creates difficulties. It would have been easier to create an encyclopedia of language teaching in a specific tradition— French, Canadian, Indian, Japanese, etc.—but it is precisely one of the aims of language teaching to create the conditions for increased understanding across linguistic and cultural borders, and to produce an encyclopedia which does not attempt to do the same for the profession would be a contradiction in terms. We hope therefore that our readership will be international and will find the account of the discipline itself international. For, although Western traditions are dominant in this as in many other disciplines, compounded by the current dominance of English and English Language Teaching, authors have been deliberately sought as widely as possible, particularly from outside the ELT world, from Asia, from the whole of Europe, as well as from Britain and North America. This means that there are entries with headwords which are not English, because some terms and traditions are not translatable—as linguists are the first to recognise. It also means that the entries about individual people have been chosen to identify those who have been influential in various traditions of language teaching and learning, rather than simply being a ‘hall of fame’ of great language educators. Contributors have thus been encouraged to write from their own perspective, with as little editorial direction as possible once the general parameters had been set and agreed by the editorial team. If this means that there is not complete harmony within the text as a whole, that there are different views evident in different but related entries, that is a reflection of the discipline in its international character, not an error in production. Readers will be able to pursue topics and see their significance from these different perspectives. Contents and organisation The main body of the encyclopedia contains entries of different lengths, from a few lines to major entries of 3,000 words. These entries are both analyses of the body of knowledge and skills of the language teaching profession, and related issues, and second, sources of information about professional matters, e.g. the meanings of acronyms, the origins and purposes of professional bodies. In the case of the former, authors provide references and suggestions for further reading. Many major entries lead on to other entries which provide further elaboration, and all entries have cross references marked within the text, and further suggested links at the end of texts. In the case of information entries, the dominant criterion has been that the item in question should be of international importance. It is not possible or helpful to include all national associations and institutions, but some exceptions have been made when they also have an international standing. The entries are in alphabetical order in the main body of the text in order to facilitate access. There are also two other routes of access: a list of contents with all the main entries grouped by theme, and an index of key words, including those appearing either as headwords for entries or others within the texts of entries. In both cases, terminology is included which is not English for the reasons stated earlier. There are entries on the teaching of specific languages and on the teaching of languages in specific countries. It is obviously not possible to be
First published 2000 by Routledge 11 New Fetter Lane, London EC4P 4EE Simultaneously published in the USA and Canada by Routledge 29 West 35th Street, New York, NY 10001 Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group This edition published in the Taylor & Francis e-Library, 2003. © 2000 Routledge All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilised in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publishers. British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data The Routledge Encyclopedia of Language Teaching and Learning/ Edited by Michael Byram, Christopher Brumfit et al. Includes bibliographical references and index. 1. Language and languages—study and teaching—encyclopedias. I. Byram, Michael. II. Brumfit, Christopher. P51 .R66 2001 418′.0071–dc21 00–036626 ISBN 0-203-21930-9 Master e-book ISBN ISBN 0-203-29284-7 (OEB Format) ISBN 0-415-12085-3 (Print Edition) < previous page
The Routledge Encyclopedia of the Chinese Language is an invaluable resource for language learners and linguists of Chinese worldwide, those interested readers of Chinese literature and cultures, and scholars in Chinese studies. Featuring the research on the changing landscape of the Chinese language by a number of eminent academics in the field, this volume will meet the academic, linguistic and pedagogical needs of anyone interested in the Chinese language: from Sinologists to Chinese linguists, as well as teachers and learners of Chinese as a second language. The encyclopedia explores a range of topics: from research on oracle bone and bronze inscriptions, to Chinese language acquisition, to the language of the mass media. This reference offers a guide to shifts over time in thinking about the Chinese language as well as providing an overview of contemporary themes, debates and research interests. The editors and contributors are assisted by an editorial board comprised of the best and most experienced sinologists world-wide. The reference includes an introduction, written by the editor, which places the assembled texts in their historical and intellectual context. The Encyclopedia of the Chinese Language is destined to be valued by scholars and students as a vital research resource.
Written by the winner of the 1987 BAAL book prize, this book deals with the acquisition of understanding of foreign cultures and peoples. It is also a study of the philosophy and purpose of language teaching in all its facets, in the context of foreign language teaching in secondary education. The book is written for language teachers and, though it draws on disciplines not usually included in their education and professional training, it does so from within the profession's own perspective. It is an attempt to raise teachers' and learners' awareness of the full educational value of foreign language learning

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