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A detailed and carefully structured study of Soviet/Russian attitudes and responses to military interventions. It explores cases from the Gulf War in 1990 to the intervention led by Western states in Libya in 2011.
A third edition of this book is now available. Now fully updated and revised, this clear and comprehensive text explores the past thirty years of Soviet/Russian international relations, comparing foreign policy formation under Gorbachev, Yeltsin, Putin, and Medvedev. Challenging conventional views of Moscow's foreign policy, Andrei P. Tsygankov shows that definitions of national interest depend on visions of national identity and is rooted both in history and domestic politics. Yet the author also highlights the role of the external environment in affecting the balance of power among competing domestic groups. Drawing on both Russian and Western sources, Tsygankov shows how Moscow's policies have shifted under different leaders' visions of Russia's national interests. He gives an overview of the ideas and pressures that motivated Russian foreign policy in five different periods: the Gorbachev era of the late 1980s, the liberal "Westernizers" era under Kozyrev in the early 1990s, the relatively hardline statist policy under Primakov, the more pragmatic statist course under Putin, and the assertive policy of the late Putin and early Medvedev era. Evaluating the successes and failures of Russia's foreign policies, Tsygankov explains its many turns as Russia's identity and interaction with the West have evolved. The book concludes with reflections on the emergence of the post-Western world and the challenges it presents to Russia's enduring quest for great-power status along with its desire for a special relationship with Western nations.
This book addresses a simple question: how do Russians understand international law? Is it the same understanding as in the West or is it in some ways different and if so, why? It answers these questions by drawing on from three different yet closely interconnected perspectives: history, theory, and recent state practice. The work uses comparative international law as starting point and argues that in order to understand post-Soviet Russia's state and scholarly approaches to international law, one should take into account the history of ideas in Russia. To an extent, Russian understandings of international law differ from what is considered the mainstream in the West. One specific feature of this book is that it goes inside the language of international law as it is spoken and discussed in post-Soviet Russia, especially the scholarly literature in the Russian language, and relates this literature to the history of international law as discipline in Russia. Recent state practice such as the annexation of Crimea in 2014, Russia's record in the UN Security Council, the jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights, prominent cases in investor-state arbitration, and the creation of the Eurasian Economic Union are laid out and discussed in the context of increasingly popular 'civilizational' ideas, the claim that Russia is a unique civilization and therefore not part of the West. The implications of this claim for the future of international law, its universality, and regionalism are discussed.
In August 2015, the government of the Russian Federation embarked its military forces on an intervention in Syria. Ever since, there is no end of discussions about Russian military capabilities and intentions - in Syria and beyond. This richly-illustrated book is providing an in-depth study of Moscow's political aims, and the strategy, doctrine, ta
In this volume, a set of issue and country experts tackle the questions surrounding the challenges of a resurgent Russia for the world order as well as for relations between the European Union and the United States. Following a brief introduction laying out the circumstances of Russia’s rise, the book proceeds in three sections. In the first, Russian scholars tackle the topic of how a newly resurgent Russia sees the world. The second section examines Russia’s role in the contemporary global political economy in terms of trade and financial flows and nuclear energy. The third section looks at American and European responses to Russia, and the conclusion draws together the findings from each of the chapters and presents some broad propositions regarding Russia’s rise and the challenges that it presents for the US, EU and the international order in the years to come. The implications of this collection are very broad and far-reaching, with ramifications for each of the players involved as well as for the development and refinement of general international relations theories concerning global conflict and cooperation, making the book relevant for both policy-makers and scholars of international relations, Russian studies, and international political economy.
Military intervention to protect civilians in danger has emerged as a key challenge for the West. This book explores the West's reaction to these challenges and some of the limits on its actions.
This book gives a detailed and precise analysis of the rise of Russian foreign policy in this decade. Russia's military interventions in Ukraine from 2014, and Syria from 2015, caused widespread surprise among Western policy communities including the United States. However, these interventions represented the culmination of two well-established trends that had been clearly identified by Russia-watchers over preceding years. These were first, a mounting perception of direct threat against Russia from the West, and second, Russia's own greatly increased capability for military or other action to respond to this perceived threat. In addition to the examination of Russia's use of military force in Ukraine and Syria, this book gives a complete insight into Russian diplomacy by analyzing the interference into the U.S. presidential elections, engagement with Latin America and interests in Sub-Saharan Africa. Contents: The Rise of Russia's Strength Prehistory Threat Perception Instability Before Libya The Arab Spring Libya Information Warfare Exclusion of Russia The Near Abroad Syria—2013 Syria—2015 Russia Is Back Outlook and Implications Summary of Policy Recommendations The Muscovite Mindset Russian Interference Into the U.S. Presidential Elections Description Technical Details Injection Flaws Cross-Site Scripting (XSS) Vulnerabilities Server Vulnerabilities Recommended Mitigations Detailed Mitigation Strategies Russian Engagement With Latin America Country-by-Country Impacts on the Region and on the United States Recommendations for U.S. Leadership Russian Interests in Sub-Saharan Africa History Russia's Presence Today — Political Priorities Economic Aims Resource Interests — Minerals Resource Interests - Energy Trade Arms Trade Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa Implications for U.S. Policy Outlook

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