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This book examines the topical sphere of governmental liability in damages arguing that that there has been an important shift in the traditional English law approach as illustrated in a series of recent House of Lords decisions. A detailed analysis is made of the torts applying to publicbodies, including negligence, misfeasance in public office, nuisance and breach of statutory duty, as well as the influence of European human rights law and community law, with discussion of the availability of damages under the Human Rights Act 1998 and the impact of the controversial decision ofthe European Court of Human Rights in Osman v UK and the subsequent retreat in Z v UK. The discussion of state liability is also placed within the context of the evolving attitude of the courts to public law remedies, with a detailed reconsideration of the relationship between ultra vires andliability in damages. From a comparative law perspective, it is argued that contrary to orthodox doctrinal opinion there are many similarities in the English and French law of administrative liability, with parallels in the treatment of different types of loss, causation, finding of fault, andunderlying policy concerns. The author discusses the direction in which English law might now move, as well as analysing less orthodox sources of compensation such as the practice of the ombudsmen and statutory funds including the new French medical negligence compensation scheme.
Vicarious liability is controversial: a principle of strict liability in an area dominated by fault-based liability. By making an innocent party pay compensation for the torts of another, it can also appear unjust. Yet it is a principle found in all Western legal systems, be they civil law or common law. Despite uncertainty as to its justifications, it is accepted as necessary. In our modern global economy, we are unlikely to understand its meaning and rationale through study of one legal system alone. Using her considerable experience as a comparative tort lawyer, Paula Giliker examines the principle of vicarious liability (or, to a civil lawyer, liability for the acts of others) in England and Wales, Australia, Canada, France and Germany, and with reference to legal systems in countries such as the United States, New Zealand and Spain.
This comparative analysis considers the differing approaches to important areas of law in England, France and Germany. In particular, constitutions, sources of law, rights against the state to prevent abuse of power, and rights of private individuals and organisations against each other in tort and contract are examined and compared, and the system of courts is also considered. Updated and revised, each sub-topic is introduced with the relevant material in the English system, allowing easy comparison and assimilation of the other systems. The text includes translations of relevant French and German codal material, and references to relevant cases from all of the jurisdictions. This new edition includes constitutional changes in France and the United Kingdom, in particular the new procedure for challenging existing legislation before the Conseil constitutionnel. It examines the consequences of the Lisbon Treaty, as well as other recent codal and legislative changes. Comprehensive and topical, the text explores a wide variety of new case law on issues such as: preventive detention; the use of evidence obtained by torture; the balance between suppression of terrorism and personal freedom; the internet; email monitoring; artificial reproductive techniques; use of global positioning systems (GPSs), deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and closed-circuit television (CCTV); the wearing of religious clothing (such as the headscarf) and symbols (such as the cross); circumcision; methods of crowd control; the prevention of human trafficking; the preservation of privacy, especially for celebrities; and the legality of pre-nuptial agreements and success fees for lawyers. Designed for students on comparative law courses, this textbook will also prove valuable to students who are familiar with English law, but require a readily comprehensible introduction to French or German law.
Today there are more than 2,500 bilateral investment treaties (BITs) around the world. Most of these investment protection treaties offer foreign investors a direct cause of action to claim damages against host-states before international arbitral tribunals. This procedure, together with the requirement of compensation in indirect expropriations and the fair and equitable treatment standard, have transformed the way we think about state liability in international law. We live in the BIT generation, a world where BITs define the scope and conditions according to which states are economically accountable for the consequences of regulatory change and administrative action. Investment arbitration in the BIT generation carries new functions which pose unprecedented normative challenges, such as the arbitral bodies established to resolve investor/state disputes defining the relationship between property rights and the public interest. They also review state action for arbitrariness, and define the proper tests under which that review should proceed. State Liability in Investment Treaty Arbitration is an interdisciplinary work, aimed at academics and practitioners, which focuses on five key dimensions of BIT arbitration. First, it analyses the past practice of state responsibility for injuries to aliens, placing the BIT generation in historical perspective. Second, it develops a descriptive law-and-economics model that explains the proliferation of BITs, and why they are all worded so similarly. Third, it addresses the legitimacy deficits of this new form of dispute settlement, weighing its potential advantages and democratic shortfalls. Fourth, it gives a comparative overview of the universal tension between property rights and the public interest, and the problems and challenges associated with liability grounded in illegal and arbitrary state action. Finally, it presents a detailed legal study of the current state of BIT jurisprudence regarding indirect expropriations and the fair and equitable treatment clause.
Over the last two decades public law liability for breach of European Union law has been subject to remarkable developments. This book examines the convergence between its two constituent systems: the damages liability of the EU and that of its Member States for failing to comply with EU rules. Member State liability, based as it is on the Francovich case (1991) and Brasserie du Pêcheur and Factortame (1996) judgments of the European Court of Justice (ECJ) is well established. But it is yet to be closely scrutinised by reference to the detailed rules on the liability of the European Union. The focus of the book is on the two key legal criteria that are common to both systems, namely the grant of rights to individuals by EU law and the notion of sufficiently serious breach of such rights. The analysis concentrates on developments in the case law of the ECJ and the General Court since the Bergaderm judgment (2000), which consolidated the convergence of the two liability systems that was first indicated in Brasserie du Pêcheur and Factortame. These two criteria are set side by side to evaluate the extent, in real terms, of the convergence of Member State and EU institutional damages liability, and to determine the extent to which one has influenced the other. This book shows that although full convergence between the two liability systems is not likely, each stream of case law should look to the other more actively as this important element of EU remedial law develops. Convergence in EU law public liability is supported by developments in adjacent areas, most notably European tort law and European administrative law. This study also illustrates how convergence in the EU liability systems to date has had spill-over effects into national public liability law.
Comprising an array of distinguished contributors, this pioneering volume of original contributions explores theoretical and empirical issues in comparative law. The innovative, interpretive approach found here combines explorative scholarship and research with thoughtful, qualitative critiques of the field. The book promotes a deeper appreciation of classical theories and offers new ways to re-orient the study of legal transplants and transnational codes. Methods of Comparative Law brings to bear new thinking on topics including: the mutual relationship between space and law; the plot that structures legal narratives, identities and judicial interpretations; a strategic approach to legal decision making; and the inner potentialities of the 'comparative law and economics' approach to the field. Together, the contributors reassess the scientific understanding of comparative methodologies in the field of law in order to provide both critical insights into the traditional literature and an original overview of the most recent and purposive trends. A welcome addition to the lively field of comparative law, Methods of Comparative Law will appeal to students and scholars of law, comparative law and economics. Judges and practitioners will also find much of interest here.
This monograph is the most comprehensive comparative law study of legal responsibility arising from medical care presently available. It is written for doctors as well as health care administrators and legal professionals. Focusing on the problems of civil liability, it presents the development, points of contact with, and differences between the modern law of medical liability stemming from both the Common Law and Civil Law traditions of England, Scotland, Eire, New Zealand, Australia, Canada, the United States, South Africa, France, Belgium, West Germany, Switzerland, and Austria. It demonstrates the extent to which both problems of medical law and trends towards their solution are already familiar in these legal systems. The work describes principles and trends, not by confronting the reader with national reports' and separate chapters on different legal systems; rather, the relevant legal problems are analyzed from an integrative, comparative viewpoint. The main thrust of the presentation is the analysis of numerous court decisions -- the number of which is rising ominously in the United States -- on the civil liability of doctors and hospitals for damages arising from substandard treatment or inadequate disclosure of information to the patient. References to the legal and medical literature, indexes, and a refined system of cross-references, together with an important collection of appendices covering legal and ethical declarations make this work accessible as a handbook and reference work for the legal and social problems encountered today in the wide area of law, ethics, and medicine.

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