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The book presents a comprehensive overview of the current state-of-the-art in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) research. It focuses on experimental ABL research, while most of the books on ABL discuss it from a theoretical or fluid dynamics point of view. Experimental ABL research has been made so far by surface-based in-situ experimentation (tower measurements up to a few hundred meters, surface energy balance measurements, short aircraft experiments, short experiments with tethered balloons, constant-level balloons, evaluation of radiosonde data). Surface flux measurements are also discussed in the book. Although the surface fluxes are one of the main driving factors for the daily variation of the ABL, an ABL description is only complete if its vertical structure is analyzed and determined. Satellite information is available covering large areas, but it has only limited temporal resolution and lacks sufficient vertical resolution. Therefore, surface-based remote sensing is a large challenge to enlarge the database for ABL studies, as it offers nearly continuous and vertically highly resolved information for specific sites of interest. Considerable progress has been made in the recent years in studying of ground-based remote sensing of the ABL. The book discusses such new subjects as micro-rain radars and the use of ceilometers for ABL profiling, modern small wind lidars for wind energy applications, ABL flux profile measurements, RASS techniques, and mixing-layer height determination.
This book offers an introduction to the meteorological boundary conditions for power generation from wind – both onshore and offshore, and provides meteorological information for the planning and running of this important renewable energy source. It includes the derivation of wind laws and wind-profile descriptions, especially those above the logarithmic surface layer, and discusses winds over complex terrains and nocturnal low-level jets. This updated and expanded second edition features new chapters devoted to the efficiency of large wind parks and their wakes and to offshore wind energy.
Over half of the global population now lives in cities. This ongoing urbanisation is making it increasingly important to adequately manage urban systems and preserve urban environments. This book is the outcome of the 11th Urban Environment Symposium (UES) held on 16-19 September 2012 in Karlsruhe, Germany. The UES aims at providing a forum on the sciences and practices needed to promote a sustainable future in urban environments. Papers by leading experts are presented in sections on Urban Management and Spatial Planning, Green Cities and Urban Ecosystems, Urban Planning and Development, Air Quality and Noise, Urban Climate Change and Adaptation, and Contamination of Urban Waters and its Effects.
Until the 1980s, a tacit agreement among many physical oceanographers was that nothing deserving attention could be found in the upper few meters of the ocean. The lack of adequete knowledge about the near-surface layer of the ocean was mainly due to the fact that the widely used oceanographic instruments (such as bathythermographs, CTDs, current meters, etc.) were practically useless in the upper few meters of the ocean. Interest in the ne- surface layer of the ocean rapidly increased along with the development of remote sensing techniques. The interpretation of ocean surface signals sensed from satellites demanded thorough knowledge of upper ocean processes and their connection to the ocean interior. Despite its accessibility to the investigator, the near-surface layer of the ocean is not a simple subject of experimental study. Random, sometimes huge, vertical motions of the ocean surface due to surface waves are a serious complication for collecting quality data close to the ocean surface. The supposedly minor problem of avoiding disturbances from ships’ wakes has frustrated several generations of oceanographers attempting to take reliable data from the upper few meters of the ocean. Important practical applications nevertheless demanded action, and as a result several pioneering works in the 1970s and 1980s laid the foundation for the new subject of oceanography – the near-surface layer of the ocean.
Part of the excitement in boundary-layer meteorology is the challenge associated with turbulent flow - one of the unsolved problems in classical physics. An additional attraction of the filed is the rich diversity of topics and research methods that are collected under the umbrella-term of boundary-layer meteorology. The flavor of the challenges and the excitement associated with the study of the atmospheric boundary layer are captured in this textbook. Fundamental concepts and mathematics are presented prior to their use, physical interpretations of the terms in equations are given, sample data are shown, examples are solved, and exercises are included. The work should also be considered as a major reference and as a review of the literature, since it includes tables of parameterizatlons, procedures, filed experiments, useful constants, and graphs of various phenomena under a variety of conditions. It is assumed that the work will be used at the beginning graduate level for students with an undergraduate background in meteorology, but the author envisions, and has catered for, a heterogeneity in the background and experience of his readers.
According to the United Nations, three out of five people will be living in cities worldwide by the year 2030. The United States continues to experience urbanization with its vast urban corridors on the east and west coasts. Although urban weather is driven by large synoptic and meso-scale features, weather events unique to the urban environment arise from the characteristics of the typical urban setting, such as large areas covered by buildings of a variety of heights; paved streets and parking areas; means to supply electricity, natural gas, water, and raw materials; and generation of waste heat and materials. Urban Meteorology: Forecasting, Monitoring, and Meeting Users' Needs is based largely on the information provided at a Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate community workshop. This book describes the needs for end user communities, focusing in particular on needs that are not being met by current urban-level forecasting and monitoring. Urban Meteorology also describes current and emerging meteorological forecasting and monitoring capabilities that have had and will likely have the most impact on urban areas, some of which are not being utilized by the relevant end user communities. Urban Meteorology explains that users of urban meteorological information need high-quality information available in a wide variety of formats that foster its use and within time constraints set by users' decision processes. By advancing the science and technology related to urban meteorology with input from key end user communities, urban meteorologists can better meet the needs of diverse end users. To continue the advancement within the field of urban meteorology, there are both short-term needs-which might be addressed with small investments but promise large, quick returns-as well as future challenges that could require significant efforts and investments.
This textbook introduces a set of fundamental equations that govern the conservation of mass (dry air, water vapor, trace gas), momentum and energy in the lower atmosphere. Simplifications of each of these equations are made in the context of boundary-layer processes. Extended from these equations the author then discusses a key set of issues, including (1) turbulence generation and destruction, (2) force balances in various portions of the lower atmosphere, (3) canopy flow, (4) tracer diffusion and footprint theory, (5) principles of flux measurement and interpretation, (6) models for land evaporation, (7) models for surface temperature response to land use change, and (8) boundary layer budget calculations for heat, water vapor and carbon dioxide. Problem sets are supplied at the end of each chapter to reinforce the concepts and theory presented in the main text. This volume offers the accumulation of insights gained by the author during his academic career as a researcher and teacher in the field of boundary-layer meteorology.

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