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Just a few meters below the Earth's surface lie features of great importance, from geological faults which can produce devastating earthquakes, to lost archaeological treasures! This refreshing, up-to-date book explores the foundations of interpretation theory and the latest developments in near-surface techniques, used to complement traditional geophysical methods for deep-exploration targets. Clear but rigorous, the book explains theory and practice in simple physical terms, supported by intermediate-level mathematics. Techniques covered include magnetics, resistivity, seismic reflection and refraction, surface waves, induced polarization, self-potential, electromagnetic induction, ground-penetrating radar, magnetic resonance, interferometry, seismoelectric and more. Sections on data analysis and inverse theory are provided and chapters are illustrated by case studies, giving students and professionals the tools to plan, conduct and analyze a near-surface geophysical survey. This is an important textbook for advanced-undergraduate and graduate students in geophysics and a valuable reference for practising geophysicists, geologists, hydrologists, archaeologists, and civil and geotechnical engineers.