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The tensorial nature of a quantity permits us to formulate transformation rules for its components under a change of basis. These rules are relatively simple and easily grasped by any engineering student familiar with matrix operators in linear algebra. More complex problems arise when one considers the tensor fields that describe continuum bodies. In this case general curvilinear coordinates become necessary. The principal basis of a curvilinear system is constructed as a set of vectors tangent to the coordinate lines. Another basis, called the dual basis, is also constructed in a special manner. The existence of these two bases is responsible for the mysterious covariant and contravariant terminology encountered in tensor discussions. A tensor field is a tensor-valued function of position in space. The use of tensor fields allows us to present physical laws in a clear, compact form. A byproduct is a set of simple and clear rules for the representation of vector differential operators such as gradient, divergence, and Laplacian in curvilinear coordinate systems. This book is a clear, concise, and self-contained treatment of tensors, tensor fields, and their applications. The book contains practically all the material on tensors needed for applications. It shows how this material is applied in mechanics, covering the foundations of the linear theories of elasticity and elastic shells. The main results are all presented in the first four chapters. The remainder of the book shows how one can apply these results to differential geometry and the study of various types of objects in continuum mechanics such as elastic bodies, plates, and shells. Each chapter of this new edition is supplied with exercises and problems most with solutions, hints, or answers to help the reader progress. An extended appendix serves as a handbook-style summary of all important formulas contained in the book.
Concise, readable text ranges from definition of vectors and discussion of algebraic operations on vectors to the concept of tensor and algebraic operations on tensors. Worked-out problems and solutions. 1968 edition.
This textbook presents the foundations of tensor calculus and the elements of tensor analysis. In addition, the authors consider numerous applications of tensors to geometry, mechanics and physics. While developing tensor calculus, the authors emphasize its relationship with linear algebra. Necessary notions and theorems of linear algebra are introduced and proved in connection with the construction of the apparatus of tensor calculus; prior knowledge is not assumed. For simplicity and to enable the reader to visualize concepts more clearly, all exposition is conducted in three-dimensional space. The principal feature of the book is that the authors use mainly orthogonal tensors, since such tensors are important in applications to physics and engineering. With regard to applications, the authors construct the general theory of second-degree surfaces, study the inertia tensor as well as the stress and strain tensors, and consider some problems of crystallophysics. The last chapter introduces the elements of tensor analysis. All notions introduced in the book, and also the obtained results, are illustrated with numerous examples discussed in the text. Each section of the book presents problems (a total over 300 problems are given). Examples and problems are intended to illustrate, reinforce and deepen the presented material. There are answers to most of the problems, as well as hints and solutions to selected problems at the end of the book.
A tensor field is a tensor-valued function of position in space. The use of tensor fields allows us to present physical laws in a clear, compact form. A byproduct is a set of simple and clear rules for the representation of vector differential operators such as gradient, divergence, and Laplacian in curvilinear coordinate systems. The tensorial nature of a quantity permits us to formulate transformation rules for its components under a change of basis. These rules are relatively simple and easily grasped by any engineering student familiar with matrix operators in linear algebra. More complex problems arise when one considers the tensor fields that describe continuum bodies. In this case general curvilinear coordinates become necessary. The principal basis of a curvilinear system is constructed as a set of vectors tangent to the coordinate lines. Another basis, called the dual basis, is also constructed in a special manner. The existence of these two bases is responsible for the mysterious covariant and contravariant terminology encountered in tensor discussions. This book provides a clear, concise, and self-contained treatment of tensors and tensor fields. It covers the foundations of linear elasticity, shell theory, and generalized continuum media, offers hints, answers, and full solutions for many of the problems and exercises, and Includes a handbook-style summary of important tensor formulas. The book can be useful for beginners who are interested in the basics of tensor calculus. It also can be used by experienced readers who seek a comprehensive review on applications of the tensor calculus in mechanics.
The purpose of this book is to provide core material in nonlinear analysis for mathematicians, physicists, engineers, and mathematical biologists. The main goal is to provide a working knowledge of manifolds, dynamical systems, tensors, and differential forms. Some applications to Hamiltonian mechanics, fluid me chanics, electromagnetism, plasma dynamics and control thcory arc given in Chapter 8, using both invariant and index notation. The current edition of the book does not deal with Riemannian geometry in much detail, and it does not treat Lie groups, principal bundles, or Morse theory. Some of this is planned for a subsequent edition. Meanwhile, the authors will make available to interested readers supplementary chapters on Lie Groups and Differential Topology and invite comments on the book's contents and development. Throughout the text supplementary topics are given, marked with the symbols ~ and {l:;J. This device enables the reader to skip various topics without disturbing the main flow of the text. Some of these provide additional background material intended for completeness, to minimize the necessity of consulting too many outside references. We treat finite and infinite-dimensional manifolds simultaneously. This is partly for efficiency of exposition. Without advanced applications, using manifolds of mappings, the study of infinite-dimensional manifolds can be hard to motivate.
There is a large gap between engineering courses in tensor algebra on one hand, and the treatment of linear transformations within classical linear algebra on the other. This book addresses primarily engineering students with some initial knowledge of matrix algebra. Thereby, mathematical formalism is applied as far as it is absolutely necessary. Numerous exercises provided in the book are accompanied by solutions enabling autonomous study. The last chapters deal with modern developments in the theory of isotropic and anisotropic tensor functions and their applications to continuum mechanics and might therefore be of high interest for PhD-students and scientists working in this area.